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THE LIBIDO THEORY AND OBJECT RELATIONS THEORY

LIBIDO THEORY

Abraham, Karl (1921-25) 'Psycho-Analytical Studies on Character-Formation', in Abraham (1979), pp. 370-418.

______ (1924) 'A Short Study of the Development of the Libido, viewed in the Light of Mental Disorders', in Abraham (1979), pp. 418-501.

______ (1979) Selected Papers on Psycho-Analysis. Maresfield.

Erikson, Eric H. (1959) Identity and the Life Cycle: Selected Papers. Psychological Issues. Monograph 1. N. Y. International Universities Press pb.

Freud, Sigmund. (1953-73) The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Hogarth.

**______ (1905)'Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality' S. E. 7, pp. 125-245. See esp. appendix - 'List of Writings by Freud Dealing Predominantly or Largely with Sexuality', pp. 244-5.

______ (1985) The Complete Letters of Sigmund Freud to Wilhelm Fliess 1887-1904.. Harvard.

Holt, Robert. R. (1965) 'A Review of Some of Freud's Biological Assumptions and Their Influence on His Theories', in N. S. Greenfield and W. C. Lewis, eds. Psychoanalysis and Current Biological Thought. Madison: Wisconsin, pp. 93-124.

Kardiner, Abraham. et al. (1959) 'A Methodological Study of Freudian Theory' J Nerv. Ment. Dis. vol. 129. 'I. Basic Concepts', pp. 11-19; 'II. The Libido Theory', pp. 133-43; 'III. Narcissism, Bisexuality and the Dual Instinct Theory', pp. 207-21; 'IV. The Structural Hypothesis, The Problem of Anxiety, and Post-Freudian Ego Psychology', pp. 341-56.

*Meltzer, Donald. (1973) Sexual States of Mind. Perthshire: Clunie pb, esp Part I, Sect A, 'The Theory of Psychosexual Development', pp. 5-36..

**Nagera, H., ed. (1981) Basic Psychoanalytic Concepts on the Libido Theory. Karnac pb.

Rapaport, David (1960) 'Psychoanalysis as a Developmental Psychology', in The Collected Papers of David Rapaport. N. Y.: Basic Books, 1967, pp. 820-52.

______ and Gill, Merton M. (1959) 'The Points of View and Assumptions of Metapsychology', Internat J. Psycho-anal 40:1-10, 1959; reprinted in Rapaport (1967), pp. 795-811.

Sulloway, Frank J. (1979) Freud: Biologist of the Mind. Beyond the Psychoanalytic Legend.. Burnett Books/Andre Deutch; also pb.

*Tyson, Phyllis and Tyson, Robert L. (1990) Psychoanalytic Theories of Development: An Integration. Yale pb.

OBJECT RELATIONS

The clearest and most accessible account is

**J. R. Greenberg and S. A. Mitchell, Object Relations in Psychoanalytic Theory. Harvard, 1983, esp. Part II on Klein, Fairbairn, Winnicott, Guntrip, pp119-232.

See also

S. Mitchell, 'The Origin and the Nature of the "Object" in Klein and Fairbairn', Contemp. Psychoanal. 17: 374-98, 1981.

However, they are prone to skew everything toward interpersonal conceptions of objects. It could be argued that the book attempts subtly to distort most other object relations theories so as to make the world safe for that of Harry Stack Sullivan. So, an essential corrective is

**G. Kohon, 'Objects Are Not People', Free Associations 2:19-30, 1985.

Another overview which canvasses the main theories is

F. Summers, Object Relations Theories and Psychopathology. Analytic Press, 1994.

Although they are not very helpful with respect to differences among object relations theorists, there are useful introductions to most of the terms in

*J. Laplanche and J.-B. Pontalis,The Language of Psycho-Analysis . Hogarth, 1973; reprinted Karnac pb. Relevant entries are: 'Object', 'Object-Relations', 'Part-Object', 'Good Object/Bad Object', 'Splitting of Object', 'Anaclitic Type of Object Choice', 'Narcissistic Object Choice', 'Ego Libido/Object Libido'.

Another highly-regarded overview is

J. Hughes, Reshaping the Psychoanalytic Domain: The Work of Melanie Klein, W.R.D. Fairbairn and W.D. Winnicott. University of California Press, 1989; also pb.

A useful collection of articles, which includes writings by a number of American authors not regarded in Britain as part of object relations theory proper is

P. Buckley, ed., Essential Papers on Object Relations. New York University Press.

There is a profound difference of atmosphere and of assumptive worlds between Freudian and Kleinian ways of representing object relations. A stark way of juxtaposing them would be to read the introduction to this collection (pp.xi-xxv) and the paper by Sandler & Sandler; then read Hinshelwood on 'Internal Objects' (listed below)

J. Sandler and A.-M. Sandler, ' On the Development of Object Relations and Affects', pp. 272-92 (also in Internat. J. Psychoanal. 59: 285-96, 1978).

There is a controversy about whether Klein is in 'the object relations school', which I find unenlightening. Since Fairbairn and Winnicott surely are, and since they developed their ideas in relation to hers, this is a silly debate, though the differences among the respective writers are of real interest and significance. The theme of object relations is a thread running through all her work. The splitting of objects into good and bad derives from the interplay between erotic and destructive instincts; they are subject to introjection and projection and to the most primitive phantasies, especially psychotic ones. The paranoid-schizoid position involves part-object relations and split-off parts, while the depressive position involves whole object relations. Projective identification involves split-off or disowned parts. These are defences against anxiety. Hence, all of Klein is relevant, but perhaps a couple of artlcles help one to make a start, then move back from some of the accounts listed below:

*M. Klein, 'The Origins of Transference' (1952), in Envy and Gratitude and Other Works 1946-1963. Hogarth, 1975; reprinted Virago, 1988, pp. 48-56.

______, 'The Mutual Influences in the Development of Ego and Id', pp. 57-60.

Move on to

______, 'A Contribution to the Psychogenesis of Manic-Depressive States' (1935), in Love, Guilt and Reoparation and Other Works 1921-1945. Hogarth, 1975; reprinted Virago pb, pp. 262-89.

**______, 'Notes on Some Schizoid Mechanisms' (1946), in Envy and Gratitude, pp. 1-24.

______, 'Some Theoretical Considerations Regarding the Emotional Life of the Infant' (1952), ibid. pp. 61-93.

The best Kleinian account is

**R.D. Hinshelwood, 'Internal Objects', 'Objects' and 'Object-Relations School', in his A Dictionary of Kleinian Thought , revised ed. Free Association Books pb, 1991, pp. 68-83, 362-67 and 367-72.

See also

*S. Isaacs ,'The Nature and Function of Phantasy', in M. Klein et al., Developments in Psychoanalysis. Hogarth, 1952, reprinted Karnac, 1989, pp.67-121. This whole book is supremely relevant to the Kleinian position on objects, internal objects and object relations.

*Joan Riviere, 'On the Genesis of Psychical Conflict in Infancy' is particularly apt, pp. 37-66.

Fairbairn's main writings are in a single volume:

W.R.D. Fairbairn, Psychoanalytic Studies of the Personality. Routledge, 1952. Part I includes the relevant papers and is entitled 'An Object-Relations Theory of the Personality', pp. 3-182.

Fairbairn is not easy of access. Aside from the relevant chapters in Greenberg & Mitchell and Hughes, there are some good expositions:

**J.D. Sutherland, 'The British Object Relations Theorists: Balint, Winnicott, Fairbairn', J. Amer. Psychoanal, Assn. 28:829-60, 1980. (notice: no Klein)

______, 'Object Relations and the Conceptual Model of Psychoanalysis', Bri. J. Med. Psychol. 36:109-24, 1963.

Sutherland also wrote an excellent, touching biography, including the interrelations between Fairbairn's ideas and his psychopathology:

*______, Fairbairn's Journey into the Interior. Free Association Books pb, 1989.

See also

J. Padel, 'Fairbairn's Thought on the Relationship of Inner and Outer Worlds', Free Assns. (no.24) 2:589-617,1991

A fine Fairbairnian essay is

*E. Armstrong-Perlman, 'The Allure of the Bad Object', Free Assns. (no. 23) 2:343-56,1991.

Fairbairn's best-known disciple distorted his mentor's ideas in the direction of his own:

H. Guntrip Psychoanalytic Theory, Therapy and the Self. N.Y.: Basic Books, 1971; reprinted Maresfield, 1977, esp. chs 3 and 4, pp.45-102.

The other acknowledged main writer in the object relations tradition is Winnicott. His most influential paper is listed below, but (as with Klein but not with the same conceptions) the idea if object relations is pervasive in his writings,

*D.W. Winnicott, 'Transitional Objects and Transitional Phenomena', in Through Paediatrics to Psycho-Analysis. Hogarth, 1975, pp. 229.

This was expanded into

______, Playing and Reality. Tavistock, 1971; reprinted Pengiun, 1980, etc.

See also

______, 'The Theory of the Parent-Infant Relationship', in The Maturational Process and the Facilitating Environment. Hogarth, 1965, pp. 37-55; reprinted in Buckley, op. cit., pp. 233-53.

Balint is also reckoned an object relations theorist:

M. Balint, Primary Love and Psychoanalytic Technique. Tavistock, 1952; revised 1965.

The classical sources are:

S. Freud, 'On Narcissism' (1914), Standard Edition, vol. 14, pp. 73-104.

**______, 'Mourning and Melancholia' (1917), S. E. vol. 14, pp. 243-60 (the resonant phrase 'the shadow of the object' is at p. 249).

______, The Ego and the Id. (1923), S.E., vol. 19, pp. 13-68.

On the origins of part-object relaations and the development of stages, see

K. Abraham, 'Contribution to the Theory of the Anal Character' (1924), in Selected Papers on Psycho-Analysis. Maresfield, 1979, pp. 370-92.

______ 'A Short Study of the Development of the Libido, Viewed in the Light of Mental Disorders (1924), in ibid., pp. 418-502.

An excellent writer in the object relations mode is the French psychoanalyst

A. Green, On Private Madness. Hogarth, 1986.

I was particularly moved by his essay,

**_______ 'The Dead Mother', pp. 142-73.

Of recent British writers in this tradition, see

C. Bollas, The Shadow of the Object: Psychoanalysis of the Unthought Known. Free Association Books, 1987, esp. part I, pp. 13-96.

American object relations writers have their own preoccupations, and this includes lots of comparing and contrasting the figures I am stressing with the work of (typically) Kohut, Kernberg, Mahler. Here are some ways in:

O. Kernberg, Object Relations and Clinical Psychoanalysis. Aronson, 1984.

P. Buckley, Essential Papers on Object Relations. New York Univ. Press, 1986.

R. V. Frankiel, Essential Papers on Object Loss. New York Univ. Press, 1994

M. Robbins, ''Current Controversy in Object Relations Theory as Outgrowth of a Schism between Klein and Fairbairn', Internat. J. Psychoanal. 61: 477-492, 1980.

J. Seinfeld, The Bad Object: Handling the Negative Therapeutic Reaction in Psychotherapy. Aronson, 1990.

An attempted overview of object relations, among other issues, from a decidedly American viewpoint, including discussion of Fairbairn and Winnicott, is

M. N. Eagle, Recent Developments in Psychoanalysis: A Critical Evaluation. Harvard University Press, 1984; pb, 1987, esp chs 2, 3, 7, 18.

R. M. Young/Psychotherapeutic Stud. 2.95

NARCISSISM

Alford, C. Fred (1988) Narcissism: Socrates, the Frankfurt School, and Psychoanalytic Theory. Yale.

American Psychiatric Association, eds. (1987) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 3rd ed., revised'. (DSM-III-R). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, **'Narcissistic Personality Disorder', pp. 349-51.

Berman, Jeffrey (1990) Narcissism and the Novel. New York University Press.

**Chasseguet-Smirgel, Janine (1985) Creativity and Perversion. Free Association Books, esp. chs. 3 and 6.

______ (1985) The Ego Ideal: A Psychoanalytic Essay on the Malady of the Ideal. Free Association Books.

***Freud, Sigmund (1914) 'On Narcissism: An Introduction', S.E. 14, pp. 73-102.

______ (1915) 'Mourning and Melancholia', S. E. 14, pp. 243-58.

______ (1920) Beyond the Pleasure Principle, S. E. 18, pp. 7-64.

Grünberger, Béla (1971) Narcissism: Psychoanalytic Essays. Madison, CT; International Universities Press, 1971; pb, 1990, esp. **'Introduction', pp. 1-34..

______ (1989) New Essays on Narcissism. Free Association Books.

Hamilton, Victoria (1982) Narcissus and Oedipus: The Children of Psychoanalysis.. Routledge & Kegan Paul; reprinted Karnac pb, 1993.

Kernberg, Otto (1975) Borderline Conditions and Pathological Narcissism. N. Y.: Aronson.

Kovel, Joel (1980) 'Narcissism and the Family', Telos no. 44: 88-101; reprinted in The Radical Spirit. Free Association Books, 1988, pp. 189-207.

*Laplanche, J. and Pontalis, J-B (1983) The Language of Psycho-Analysis. Hogarth; reprinted Karnac pb, entry on 'Narcissism'.

Lasch, Christopher (1978) The Culture of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations Norton; reprinted Abacus pb, 1980.

Levin, David M., ed. (1987) Pathologies of the Modern Self: Postmodern Studies on Narcissism, Schizophrenia, and Depression. New York University Press pb, chs. 2, 8 and pp. 500-18.

Morrison, Andrew P., ed. (1986) Essential Papers on Narcissism. New York University Press pb.

Rosenfeld, Herbert (1971) 'A Clinical Approach to the Psychoanalytic Theory of the Life and Death Instincts: An Investigation into the Aggressive Aspects of Narcissism', Int. J. Psycho-anal. 52: 169-78; reprinted in Spillius, ed. (1988), vol. 1, pp. 239-55.

Segal, Hanna (1983) Some Clinical Implications of Melanie Klein's Work: Emergence from Narcissism. Internat. J. Psycho-anal. 64: 269-76.

Spillius, E. B., ed.(1988) Melanie Klein Today, 2 vols. Routledge pb.

Sandler, Joseph et al., eds. (1991) Freud's 'On Narcissism: An Introduction'. Yale, *esp. Hanna Segal and David Bell, 'The Theory of Narcissism in the Work of Freud and Klein', pp. 149-74.

Sohn, Leslie (1985) 'Narcissistic Organization, Projective Identification, and the Formation of the Identificate', Internat. J. Psycho-anal. 66: 201-13; reprinted in Spillius, ed. (1988), vol. 1, pp. 271-92.

Symington, Neville (1994) Narcissism: A New Theory. Karnac

R. M. Young/PSA Studies 2.95

WINNICOTT: READINGS

*Winnicott, D. W. (1951) 'Transitional Objects and Transitional Phenomena', in Through Paediatrics to Psycho-Analysis. Hogarth, 1975, pp. 229-242.

______(1952) 'Psychoses and Child Care', in ibid, pp. 219-28

______ (1965) The Maturational Processes and the Facilitating Environment: Studies in the Theory of Emotional Development. Hogarth.

**______(1971) Playing and Reality. Tavistock; reprinted Penguin, 1974, etc. (includes original transitional objects paper - cited above)

______(1988) Human Nature. .Free Association Books.

______ (1989) 'The Fate of the Transitional Object', in Psycho-Analytic Explorations. Karnac, pp. 53-8.

*Phillips, A. (1988) Winnicott . Fontana.

Davis, M. and Wallbridge, D. (1981) Boundary and Space: An Introduction to the Work of Winnicott. Karnac; reprinted Penguin, 1983, etc.

Grolnick, S. A. et al., eds. (1978) Between Reality and Fantasy: Winnicott's Concept of Transitional Objects and Phenomena.

Aronson, esp ch 11 -

*A. Green, 'Potential Space in Psychoanalysis: The Object in the Setting', pp. 167-90.

Young, R. M. (1989) 'Transitional Phenomena: Production and Consumption', in B. Richards, ed., Crises of the Self: Further Essays in Psychoanalysis and Politics. Free Association Books, pp. 57-72.

______ (1994) Mental Space . Process Press, pp.29-31 and ch. 8.

Brody, S. (1980) 'Transitional Objects: Idealization of a Phenomenon', Psychoanal. Quart. 49:561-605.

Kahne, M. J. (1967) 'On the Persistence of Transitional Phenomena into Adult Life', Int. J. Psycho-anal. 48: 247-58.

Lerner, Lelia, ed. (1992) Illusion and Culture: A Tribute to Winnicott, Special Issue of Psychoanal. Rev. 79 (no. 2).

Padel, John (1991) 'The Psychoanalytic Theories of Menalnie Klein and Donald Winnicott and Their Interaction in the British Society of Psychoanalysis', Psychoanal. Rev. 78: 325-45.

Rudnytsky, Peter L., ed. (1993) Transitional Objects and Potential Spaces: Literary Uses of D. W. Winnicott. Columbia.

Wulff, M. (1946) 'Fetishism and Object Choice in Early Childhood', Psychoanal. Quart. 15:450-71.

KLEIN: READINGS

This list includes the main Kleinian works.

I have starred those specifically cocerned with her work

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF KLEINIAN BOOKS

Anderson, Robin, ed. (1992) Clinical Lectures on Klein and Bion. Routledge.

Berke, Joseph (1989) The Tyranny of Malice: Exploring the Dark Side of Character and Culture. Simon and Schuster.

Bion, Wilfred R. (1961) Experiences in Groups and Other Papers. Tavistock.

______ (1962) Learning from Experience. Heinemann; reprinted Maresfield, 1984.

______ (1963) Elements of Psycho-analysis. Heinemann; reprinted Maresfield, 1984.

______ (1965) Transformations. Heinemann; reprinted Maresfield, 1984.

______(1967) Second Thoughts: Selected Papers on Psycho-Analysis. Heinemann Medical; reprinted Maresfield, 1984.

______ (1970) Attention and Interpretation. Tavistock.

______ (1975) A Memoir of the Future, 3 vols. Rio de Janero: Imago Editora, etc. ; reprinted in one vol Karnac, 1991

______ (1982) The Long Weekend 1897-1919: Part of a Life. Abingdon: Fleetwood Press; reprinted Free Association Books, 1986.

______ (1991) All My sins Remembered: Another Part of a Life and he Other Side of Genius - Letters. Abingdon: Fleetwood Press.

______ (1992) Cogitations. Karnac.

Bleandonu, Gerard (1994) Willfred Bion: His Life and Works 1897-1979. Free Association Books.

Britton, Ronald et al. (1989) The Oedipus Complex Today: Clinical Implications. Karnac.

Copley, Beta (1993) The World of Adolescence: Literature, Society and Psychoanalytic Therapy. Free Association Books.

Etchegoyen, Horacio (1991) The Fundamentals of Psychoanalytic Technique. Karnac.

Greenberg, Jay R. and Mitchell, Stephen A. (1983) Object Relations in Psychoanalytic Theory. Harvard.

Grinberg, Leon et al. (1993) New Introduction to the Work of Bion. Aronson.

*Grosskurth, Phyllis (1985) Melanie Klein: Her World and Her Work. Hodder and Staughton.

Grotstein, James (1981) Splitting and Projective Identification Aronson.

______, ed. (1981) Do I Dare Disturb the Universe? A Memorial to Wilfred R. Bion. Caesura Press; reprinted Maresfield, 1983.

Heimann, Paula (1990) About Children and Children No Longer: The Work of Paula Heimann. Routledge.

Herman, Nini (1985) My Kleinian Home. Quartet; reprinted Free Association Books, 1988.

______ (1989) Too Long a Child: The Mother-Daughter Dyad. Free Association Books.

______ (1987) Why Psychotherapy? Free Association Books.

Hinshelwood, Robert D. (1987) What Happens in Groups. Free Association Books.

*______(1991) A Dictionary of Kleinian Thought, 2nd ed. Free Association Books.

*______ (1994) Clinical Klein. Free Association Books.

*Hughes, Judith (1990) Reshaping the Psychoanalytic Domain: The Work of Melanie Klein, W> R. D. Fairbairn and D. W. Winnicott. California.

Joseph, Betty (1989) Psychic Equilibrium and Psychic Change: Selected Papers. Routledge.

*King, Pearl. & Steiner, Ricardo, eds. (1991) The Freud-Klein Controversies 1941-45. Tavistock/Routledge.

*Klein, Melanie (1975) The Writings of Melanie Klein, 4 vols. Hogarth. Vol. I: Love, Guilt and Reparation and Other Works., 1921-1945. Vol. II: The Psycho-Analysis of Children. Vol. III Envy and Gratitude and Other Works; 1946-1963; . Vol. IV: Narrative of a Child Analysis. all reprinted Virago, 1988.

*______ (1986) The Selected Melanie Kline. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

*______ et al. (1952) Developments in Psycho-Analysis. Hogarth.

*______ et al., eds. (1955) New Directions in Psycho-Analysis: The Significance of Infant Conflicts in the Patterns of Adult Behaviour. Tavistock; reprinted Maresfield,

Meltzer. Donald (1967) The Psycho-analytical Process. Strath Tay: Clunie.

*______ (1978) The Kleinian Development Part I: Freud's Clinical Development; Part II: Richard Week-by-Week; Part III: The Clinical Significance of the Work of Bion. Strath Tay: Clunie.

______ (1979) Sexual States of Mind. Strath Tay: Clunie.

______ (1984) Dream-Life: A Reexamination of Psychoanalytical Theory and Technique. Strath Tay: Clunie.

______ (1992) The Claustrum: An Investigation of Claustrophobic Phenomena. Strath Tay: Clunie.

______ (1994) Sincerity and Other Works: The Collected Papers of Donald Meltzer. Karnac.

______ et al. (1975) Explorations in Autism: A Psycho-Analytical Study. Strath Tay: Clunie.

______ et al. (1986) Studies in Extended Metapsychology, Strath Tay: Clunie.

Meltzer, D. and Harris Williams, M. (1988) The Apprehension of Beauty: The Role of Aesthetic Conflict in Development, Art and Violence. Strath Tay: Clunie.

Menzies Lyth, Isabel (1988) Containing Anxiety in Institutions: Selected Essays, vol. 1. Free Association Books.

______ (1989) The Dynamics of the Social: Selected Essays, vol. II. Free Association Books.

Money Kyrle, Roger (1978) Collected Papers. Strath Tay: Clunie.

______ (1978) Man's Picture of His World. Duckworth.

*Petot, J-M. (1991) Melanie Klein, 2 vols. International Universities Press. vol. 1: First Discoveries and First System1919-1932; vol. 2: The Ego and the Good Object 1932-1960.

Pines, Malcolm, ed. (1985) Bion and Group Psychotherapy. Routledge.

Rey, Henri (1994) Universals of Psychoanalysis: In the Treatment of Psychotic and Borderline States. Free Association Books

Rhode Eric (1990) The Generations of Adam. Free Association Books.

______ (1994) Psychotic Metaphysics. Karnac.

Riviere, Joan (1991) The Inner World of Joan Riviere: Collected Papers 1920-58. Routledge.

*Rose, Jacqueline (1994) Why War? Psychoanalysis, Politics and the Return to Melanie Klein. Blackwell.

Rosenfeld, Herbert (1965) Psychotic States: A Psychoanalytical Approach. Hogarth; reprinted Maresfield, 1982.

______ (1987) Impasse and Interpretation: Therapeutic and Anti-Therapeutic Factors in Psychoanalytic Treatment of Psychotic, Borderline, and Neurotic Patients. Routledge.

*Segal, Hanna (1973) Introduction to the Work of Melanie Klein. Hogarth; reprinted Karnac, 1988.

*______(1979) Klein. Fontana.

______ (1981) The Work of Hanna Segal: A Kleinian Approach to Clinical Practice. Aronson; reprinted Free Association Books/ Maresfield Library, 1986.

______ (1990) Dream, Phantasy and Art. Routledge.

Segal, Julia (1985) Phantasy in Everyday Life: A Psychoanalytic Approach to Understanding Ourselves. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

*______ (1992) Melanie Klein. Sage.

*Spillius, Elizabeth, ed. (1988) Melanie Klein Today, 2 vols. Routledge

Steiner, John (1993) Psychic Retreats: Pathological Organizations in Psychotic, Neurotic and Borderline Patients. Routledge.

*Weininger, Otto (1992) Melanie Klein: From Theory to Reality. Karnac.

______ (1993) View from the Cradle: Children's Emotions in Everyday Life. Karnac.

Williams, Meg Harris and Waddell, Margot (1991) The Chamber of Maiden Thought: Literary Origins of the Psychoanalytic Model of the Mind. Routledge.

*Young, Robert M. (1994) Mental Space. Process Press.

R. M. YOUNG/PSA STUDIES 2.95

BION: READINGS

Anderson, R., ed. (1992) Clinical Lectures on Klein and Bion. Routledge.

Armstrong, D. (1992) 'Names, Thoughts and Lies: The Relevance of Bion's Later Writings to the Understanding of Experiences in Groups', Free Assns. (no. 26) 3: 261-82.

*Bion, W. (1961) Experiences in Groups and Other Papers. Tavistock, esp last ch. - 'Re-view: Group Dynamics', pp.141-92.

______ (1957) 'Differentiation of the Psychotic from the Non-Psychotic Personalities', Int.J. Psycho-anal. 38: 266-75; reprinted in Second Thoughts: Selected Papers on Psycho-Analysis. Heinemann, 1967, pp. 93-109.

______ (1959) 'Attacks on linking' Internat J. Psycho-Anal. 40:308-15; reprinted in Second Thoughts, op. cit., pp.43-64.

______ (1967) 'Notes on Memory and Desire', Psychoanalytic Forum; reprinted in Spillius (1988), vol. 2, pp. 17-21.

______ (1982) The Long Week-End 1897-1919: Part of a Life. Fleetwood Press; reprinted Free Association Books pb, 1986.

______ (1985) All My Sins Remembered: Another Part of a Life and The Other Side of Genius: Family Letters. Abingdon: Fleetwood Press.

**Bléandonu, G. (1994) Wilfred R. Bion: His Life and Works 1897-1979. Free Association Books.

Grinberg, et al. (1975) Introduction to the Work of Bion: Groups, Knowledgfe, Psychosis, Thought, Transformations, Psychoanalytic Practice . Strath Tay: Clunie Prteee.

Meltzer, D. (1978) The Clinical Significance of the Work of Bion , vol. 3 of The Kleinian Development. Strath Tay: Clunie Press.

Spillius, E. B., ed. (!988) Melanie Klein Today, 2 vols. Routledge.

*Trist, E. (1985) 'Working with Bion in the 1940s: The Group Decade', in Pines, M., ed. Bion and Group Psychotherapy. Routledge, pp. 1-46. See also essays by Sutherland and Bridger.

Waddell, M. (1984) 'The Long Weekend'. Free Assns. Pilot Issue: 72-84.

Williams, Meg Harris (1985) 'The Tiger and "O": A Reading of Bion's Memoir and Autobiography', Free Assns. no. 1: 33-56.

R. M. YOUNG/PSA Studies 2.95

DONALD MELTZER: READINGS

Meltzer, Donald (1966) 'The Relation of Anal Masturbation to Projective Identification', Internat. J. Psycho-anal. 47:335-42; reprinted in Spillius, ed. Melanie Klein Today. Routledge pb, 1988, vol. 1, pp. 102-16 and in Meltzer, The Claustrum (see below).

______ (1967) The Psycho-Analytic Process. Heinemann; reprinted Strath Tay: Clunie Press pb, 1979.

______ (1973) Sexual States of Mind. Clunie pb.

______ (1978) The Kleinian Development. Part I: Freud's Clinical Development; Part II: Richard Week-by-Week; Part III: The Clinical Significance of the Work of Bion. Clunie.

______ (1983) Dream-Life: A Re-examination of the Psycho-analytical Theory and Technique. Clunie.

______ (1992) The Claustrum: An Investigation of Claustrophobic Phenomena. Clunie.

______ (1994) Sincerity and Other Works: The Collected Papers of Donald Meltzer. Karnac.

______ and Meg Harris Williams (1988) The Apprehension of Beauty: The Role of Aesthetic Conflict in Development, Art and Violence. Clunie.

______ et al. (1975) Explorations in Autism: A Psycho-Analytical Study. Clunie pb.

______ et al. (1986) Studies in Extended Metapsychology: Clinical Applications of Bion's Ideas. Clunie.

List 3b

R. M.YOUNG/PSA STUDIES 2.95

THE INDEPENDENTS: READINGS

*Rayner, E. (1990) The Independent Mind in British Psychoanalysis. Free Association Books.

Kohon, G. (1986) The British School of Psychoanalysis: The Independent Tradition. Free Association Books.

Sutherland, J. D. (1980) 'The British Object Relations Theorists: Balint, Winnicott, Fairbairn, Guntrip', J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn. 28:829-60.

______, 'Object Relations and the Conceptual Model of Psychoanalysis', Bri. J. Med. Psychol. 36:109-24, 1963.

Jones, E. (1959) Free Associations: Memories of a Psychoanalyst. Hogarth.

King, P. and Steiner, R., eds. (1991) The Freud-Klein Controversies 1941-45. Routledge.

Grosskurth, P. (1985) Melanie Klein: Her World and Her Work Hodder and Staughton.

Particular figures:

Jones, Glover, Balint, Winnicott, Fairbairn, Heimann, Rickman, Flugel. Sharpe, Strachey, Brierley, Payne, Klauber, Khan, Bowlby, Little, Milner, Stewart, E. Balint, Limintani, Sutherland, Rycroft, Casement, Coltart, Symington, Peddar, Parsons, Gillispie, Kennedy, Kohon, Mitchell, Hayley, Tuckett, Main, Malan, Matte-Blanco, Bollas, Rayner.

R.M. YOUNG/PSA STUDIES 2.95

PSYCHOPATHOLOGY: READINGS

1. THE CONCEPT OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

*Berrios, G. E. (1991) 'British Psychopathology since the Early 20th Century', in G. E. Berrios and H. Freeman, eds., 150 Years of British Psychiatry 1841-1991. Gaskell, pp. 232-44.

Canguilhem, G. (1991) The Normal and the Pathological. Zone pb.

Durkheim, E. (1895) 'Rules for Distinguishing between the Normal and the Pathological', in The Rules of Sociological Method. Collier-Macmillan, pb, 1968, pp. 47-75.

Figlio, K. (1985) 'Medical Diagnosis, Class Dynamics, Social Stability', in L. Levidow and R. M. Young, eds., Science, Technology and the Labour Process,. Free Association Books, vol. 2, pp. 129-65.

Kovel, Joel (1987) 'Schizophrenic Being and Technocratic Society', in Levin, ed. (1987), pp. 330-48.

Levin, D. M. (1987) 'Psychopathology in the Epoch of Nihilism', in D. M. Levin, ed., Pathologies of the Modern Self. New York University Press, pp. 21-83.

Radcliffe-Brown, A. R. (1935) 'On the Concept of Function in Social Science', in Structure and Function in Primitive Society.. Cohen & West pb, 1952, pp. 178-87.

Young, R. M. 'The Naturalization of Value Systems in the Human Sciences', in Problems in the Biological and Human Sciences. Milton Keynes: Open University Press pb, pp. 63-110.

2. ORTHODOX CLASSIFICATION AND PSYCHIATRIC CONCEPTS OF MENTAL DISEASE

***American Psychiatric Association (1987) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Third Edition - Revised). DSM-III-R. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association pb, Ch. 3 and pp. 479-90.

Bleuler, E. (1911) Dementia Praecox: or the Group of Schizophrenias. N.Y.: International Universities Press, 1950.

Brenner, C. (1973) 'Psychopathology', Ch. 8 of An Elementary Textbook of Psychoanalysis., revised ed. N. Y.: International Universities Press.

Jaspers, K (1963) General Psychopathology. Manchester University Press.

Shepherd, M. and Zangwill, O. L. (1983) General Psychopathology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wolff, H. Bateman, S. and Sturgeon, D., eds. (1991) UCH Textbook of Psychiatry. Duckworth, esp. Part IV.

3. 'NORMAL' PSYCHOPATHOLOGY: DEFENCE MECHANISMS

Freud, S. (1901) The Psychopathology of Everyday Life. Standard Ed. (S.E.), vol. 6.

*Freud, A. (1937) The Ego and The Mechanisms of Defence. Hogarth, esp. Ch. 4.

J. Sandler with A. Freud (1985)The Analysis of Defence: The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defence Revisited. N. Y.: International Universities Press, esp. pp. 107-257, where they reconsider her original text and list of defences, and pp. 521-40 - conclusion.

K. Menninger (1938) Man Against Himself. reprinted N.Y.: Harvest pb, esp. Part VI, pp. 367-416.

4. PSYCHODYNAMIC CONCEPTIONS OF PSYCHOSIS

Barham, P. (1984) Schizophrenia and Human Value. .Oxford: Blackwell pb; reprinted Free Association books pb, 1993..

______ (1992) Closing the Asylum: The Mental Patient in Modern Society. Harmondsworth: Penguin pb.

Freud, S, (1917) 'Mourning and Melancholia' S. E. 14, pp. 243-58.

**Isaacs, S. (1952) 'The Nature and Function of Phantasy', in Klein et al., Developments in Psychoanalysis . Hogarth; reprinted Karnac pb, 1989, pp. 67-121.

**Riviere, J. (1952) 'On the Genesis of Psychical Conflict in Earliest Infancy', in Klein et al., , pp. 37-66.

Meltzer, D. (1978) 'The Schizophrenia Papers', in The Kleinian Development, Part III: The Clinical Significance of the Work of Bion. Strath Tay: Clunie, Ch.. 3 .

*Klein, M. (1935) 'A Contribution to the Psychogenesis of Manic-Depressive States', in

Love, Guilt and Reparation and Other Works 1921-1945. Hogarth, 1975, reprinted Virago pb, Ch.. 17.

**______ (1946) 'Notes on Some Schizoid Mechanisms', in Envy and Gratitude and Other Works 1946-1963. Hogarth, 1975, reprinted Virago pb, 1988, Ch.. 1.

______ et al. (1952) Developments in Psychoanalysis. Hogarth, reprinted Karnac, 1989.

Langs, R. and Searles, H. (1980) Intrapsychic and Interpersonal Dimensions of Treatment: A Clinical Dialogue. Aronson, esp. Ch. 4.

Little, M. (1985) 'Winnicott Working in Areas where Psychotic Anxieties Predominate', Free Assns. 3:9-42.

Meltzer, D. et al. (1975) Explorations in Autism: A Psycho-Analytical Study. Strath Tay: Clunie Press pb, esp. Chs. 1, 2, 9.

Rosenfeld, H. A. (1965) Psychotic States: A Psychoanalytical Approach. Hogarth; reprinted Maresfield pb, 1982, esp. Chs. 1, 4, 9.

______ (1987) Impasse and Interpretation: Therapeutic and Anti-Therapeutic Factors in the Psychoanalytic Treatment of Psychotic, Borderline, and Neurotic Patients. Routledge, esp. Ch 1: 'A Psychoanalytic Approach to the Treatment of Psychotics', pp. 3-30

Searles, H. (1965) Collected Papers on Schizophrenia and Related Subjects. Hogarth; reprinted Maresfield pb, 1986, esp. Chs. 6, 8, 10, 18, 21.

Segal, H. (1981) The Work of Hanna Segal: A Kleinian Approach to Clinical Practice. Aronson; reprinted Free Association Books/Maresfield Library, 1986, esp. Chs. 8-11.

Young, R. M.(1992) 'The Vicissitudes of Transference and Countertransference: The Work of Harold Searles' J Arbours Assn.. 9:24-58.

______ (1992) 'Benign and Virulent Projective Identifications in Groups and Institutions' (typescript).

*______ (1992) 'The Ubiquity of Psychotic Anxieties' (typescript).

5. BORDERLINE DISORDERS AND PATHOLOGICAL ORGANISATIONS

**DSM-III-R, pp. 346-7

**Hinshelwood, R. D. (1991) 'Pathological Organisations', in his Dictionary of Kleinian Thought', 2nd ed. Free Association Books pb, pp. 381-87.

Searles, H. (1986) My Work with Borderline Patients. Aronson, esp. Chs. 7-9

**Spillius, E. B., ed. (1988) 'Pathological Organisations', in Melanie Klein Today. Routledge pb, vol. 1, pp. 195-342, especially 'Introduction', pp. 195-202.

**Steiner, J. 'The Interplay between Pathological Organizations and the Paranoid-

Schizoid and `Depressive Positions', Ibid. pp. 324-42.

** ______ (1993) Psychic Retreats: Pathological Organizations in Psychotic, Neurotic and Borderline Patients. Routledge

Tarnopolsky, A. (1992) 'The Validity of the Borderline Personality Disorder', in D. Silver and M. Rosenbleuth, eds., Handbook of Borderline Disorders.. Madison, CT: International Universities Press, pp. 29-52.

______ (1992a) 'Borderline Disorders: A British Point of View', in Ibid., pp. 177-202.

Waddell, M. and Williams, G. (1991) 'Reflections on Perverse States of Mind', Free Assns. (no. 22)2:203-13.

 


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