DARWIN & DARWINISM

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THE EXPRESSION OF THE

EMOTIONS IN MAN AND ANIMALS

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BY

CHARLES DARWIN M.A., FRS., ETC.

Introduction

THE EXPRESSION OF THE EMOTIONS IN MAN AND ANIMALS

Chapter 1

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF EXPRESSION. The three chief principles stated--The first principle--Serviceable actions become habitual in association with certain states of the mind, and are performed whether or not of service in each particular case-- The force of habit--Inheritance--Associated habitual movements in man--Reflex actions--Passage of habits into reflex actions-- Associated habitual movements in the lower animals--Concluding remarks

Chapter 2

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF EXPRESSION-- continued. The Principle of Antithesis--Instances in the dog and cat--Origin of the principle-- Conventional signs--The principle of antithesis has not arisen from opposite actions being consciously performed under opposite impulses

Chapter 3

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF EXPRESSION--concluded. The principle of the direct action of the excited nervous system on the body,  independently of the will and in part of habit--Change of colour in the hair-- Trembling of the muscles--Modified secretions--Perspiration--Expression of extreme pain--Of rage, great joy, and terror--Contrast between the emotions which cause and do not cause expressive movements--Exciting and depressing states of the mind--Summary

Chapter 4

MEANS OF EXPRESSION. IN ANIMALS. The emission of sounds--Vocal sounds--Sounds otherwise produced--Erection of the dermal appendages, hairs, feathers, &c., under the emotions of anger and terror--The drawing back of the ears as a preparation for fighting, and as an expression of anger-- Erection of the ears and raising the head, a sign of attention 

Chapter 5

SPECIAL EXPRESSIONS OF ANIMALS. The Dog, various expressive movements of--Cats--Horses--Ruminants--Monkeys, their expression of joy and affection--Of pain--Anger Astonishment and Terror Pages

Chapter 6

SPECIAL EXPRESSIONS OF MAN: SUFFERING AND WEEPING. The screaming and weeping of infants--Form of features--Age at which weeping commences-- he effects of habitual restraint on weeping--Sobbing--Cause of the contraction of the muscles round the eyes during screaming--Cause of the secretion of tears

Chapter 7

LOW SPIRITS, ANXIETY, GRIEF, DEJECTION, DESPAIR. General effect of grief on the system--Obliquity of the eyebrows under suffering--On the cause of the obliquity of the eyebrows--On the depression of the corners of the mouth

Chapter 8

JOY, HIGH SPIRITS, LOVE, TENDER FEELINGS, DEVOTION. Laughter primarily the expression of joy--Ludicrous ideas--Movements of the features during laughter--Nature of the sound produced--The secretion of tears during loud laughter--Gradation from loud laughter to gentle smiling--High spirits--The expression of love--Tender feelings--Devotion

Chapter 9

REFLECTION--MEDITATION--ILL--TEMPER--SULKINESS DETERMINATION. The act of frowning--Reflection with an effort or with the perception of something difficult or disagreeable--Abstracted meditation--Ill-temper--Moroseness--Obstinacy--Sulkiness and pouting--Decision or determination--The firm closure of the mouth

Chapter 10

HATRED AND ANGER. Hatred--Rage, effects of on the system--Uncovering of the teeth--Rage in the insane--Anger and indignation--As expressed by the various races of man--Sneering and defiance--The uncovering of the canine teeth on one side of the face

Chapter 11

DISDAIN--CONTEMPT--DISGUST--GUILT--PRIDE, ETC.--HELPLESSNESS-- PATIENCE--AFFIRMATION AND NEGATION. Contempt, scorn and disdain, variously expressed--Derisive Smile--Gestures expressive of contempt--Disgust--Guilt, deceit, pride, etc.--Helplessness or impotence--Patience--Obstinacy--Shrugging the shoulders common to most of the races of man--Signs of affirmation and negation

Chapter 12

SURPRISE--ASTONISHMENT--FEAR--HORROR. Surprise, astonishment--Elevation of the eyebrows--Opening the mouth--Protrusion of the lips--Gestures accompanying surprise--Admiration Fear--Terror--Erection of the hair--Contraction of the platysma muscle--Dilatation of the pupils--horror--Conclusion

Chapter 13

SELF-ATTENTION--SHAME--SHYNESS--MODESTY: BLUSHING. Nature of a blush--Inheritance--The parts of the body most affected--Blushing in the various races of man--Accompanying gestures--Confusion of mind--Causes of blushing--Self-attention, the fundamental element--Shyness--Shame, from broken moral laws and conventional rules--Modesty--Theory of blushing--Recapitulation 

Chapter 14

CONCLUDING REMARKS AND SUMMARY. The three leading principles which have determined the chief movements of expression--Their inheritance--On the part which the will and intention have played in the acquirement of various expressions--The instinctive recognition of expression--The bearing of our subject on the specific unity of the races of man--On the successive acquirement of various expressions by the progenitors of man--The importance of expression--Conclusion

 


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Ian Pitchford and Robert M. Young - Last updated: 28 May, 2005 02:29 PM

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