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*Barham, P. (1984) ‘Selfhood, Identity and Narrative’, in Schizophrenia and Human Value. Oxford: Blackwell; reprinted Free Association Books pb, 1993, pp. 87-99.

Berggren, Douglas (1962-63) ‘The Use and Abuse of Metaphor, I and II’. Rev. of Metaphysics. 16: 237-58, 450-72.

Certeau, Michel de (1988) ‘The Fiction of History: The Writing of Moses and Monotheism’, in The Writing of History. N. Y.: Columbia, pp. 308-54.

* Freud, S. (1933) ‘The Dissection of the Psychical Personality’, New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis. S.E. 22, pp. 57-80.

*Hinshelwood, R. D. (1991) ‘Depressive Position’ and ‘Paranoid-Schizoid Position’, in A Dictionary of Kleinian Thought, revised ed. Free Association Books pb, pp. 138-66.

MacIntyre, A. (1977) ‘Epistemological Crises, Narrative and the Philosophy of Science’, The Monist 60:453-72

______ (1985) After Virtue: A study in Moral Theory, 2nd ed. Duckworth pb, chs. 4-6.

Rapaport, D. (1960) The Structure of Psychoanalytic Theory: A Systematizing Attempt. Psychological Issues vol. 2, no. 2, Monograph 6.

______ and Gill, M. (1959) ‘The Points of View and Assumptions of Metapsychology’, Int. J. Psychoanal. 40:1-10.

**Rorty, R. (1989) ‘The Contingency of Selfhood’, in Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity. Cambridge pb, pp. 23-40.

______ (1982) ‘Method, Social Science and Social Hope’, in Consequences of Pragmatism (Essays: 1972-1980). Madison: Minnesota pb, pp. 191-210.

______ (1982) ‘Philosophy in America Today’, in Ibid. pp. 211-32.

Soyland, A. J. (1994) Psychology as Metaphor. Sage pb.

Spence, Donald P. (1982) Narrative Truth and Historical Truth.

N. Y.: Norton.

______ (1982) ‘Narrative Truth and Theoretical Truth’, Psychoanal. Quart. 51: 43-69.

*______ (1987) The Freudian Metaphor: Toward Paradigm Change in Psychoanalysis. N. Y.: Norton, esp. ch. 1.

______ (1994) The Rhetorical Voice of Psychoanalysis: Displacement of Evidence by Theory. Harvard, esp. ch. 4.

**Stein, R. (1990) ‘A New Look at the Theory of Melanie Klein’, Int. J. Psycho-anal. 71: 499-511.

White, H. (1984) 'The Question of Narrative in Contemporary Historical Theory', Hist. and Theory 23: 1-33.

*Young, R. M. (1986) ‘Freud: Scientist and/or Humanist’, Free Assns. 6: 7-35.

______ (1988) ‘Biography: The Basic Discipline for a Human Science’, Free Assns. 11: 108-30.

______ (1992) ‘Science, Ideology and Donna Haraway’ Sci. as Culture. (no. 15) 3: 7-46, 1992.

______ (1994) Mental Space. Process Press pb, esp chs. 1, 3.



E. Cassirer (1944) An Essay on Man: An Introduction to a Philosophy of Human Culture. Yale.

M. Douglas, Purity and Danger: An Analysis of the Concepts of Pollution and Taboo (1966); reprinted Penguin pb, 1970.

*S. Freud, Civilization and Its Discontents (1930). S. E. 21, pp. 64-145.

*______, 'The Question of a Weltanschauung', ch XXXV of New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis (1933), S. E. 22, pp. 158-182.

*P. Gay, 'Civilization: The Human Predicament', in Freud: A Life for Our Time. Dent, 1988, pp. 543-52.

D. Harvey, The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change. Blackwell, 1980; pb, 1989

S. Langer (1942) Philosophy in a New Key: A Study in the Symbolism of Reason, Rite and Art, 3rd ed. Harvard pb, 1957

*H. Marcuse, Eros and Civilization: A Philosophical Inquiry into Freud.. Allen Lane, 1969; various reprints, e.g., Sphere.

C. Penley (1992) ‘Feminism, Psychoanalysis and the Study of Popular Culture’, in L. Grosberg et al., eds. Cultural Studies. Routedge pb, pp. 479-500.

B. Richards (1994) Disciplines of Delight: The Psychoanalysis of Popular Culture. Free Association Books pb.

P. Rieff, Freud: The Mind of the Moralist . Gollancz, 1959, 3rd ed. Chicago pb, 1979.

*R. Williams, 'Culture', in Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society. Fontana, 1976, pp. 76-82; cf other entries, e.g., civilization.

______, Culture . Fontana, 1981.

D. W. Winnicott, Playing and Reality. Tavistock, 1971; reprinted Pelican, 1974.

R. M. Young, Mind, Brain and Adaptation in the Nineteenth Century (1970), 2nd ed., Oxford, 1990.

*______, 'Association of Ideas', in P. P. Wiener, ed., Dictionary of the History of Ideas. N. Y.: Scribner's, 1973, vol. 1, pp. 111-18.

______ 'Postmodernity and the Subject: Pessimism of the Will', Free Assns.166:81-96,1989.

**______ Mental Space . Process Press pb, ch. 2.

R. M. Young/Psychotherapeutic Stud./1.95


D. Armstrong, ‘Names, Thoughts and Lies: The Relevance of Bion’s Later Writing to Experiences in Groups’, Free Assns. (no. 26) 3: 261-82, 1992.

R. de Board, Psychoanalysis of Organizations: A Psychoanalytic Approach to Behavior in Groups and Organizations. Tavistock, 1978.

*W. R. Bion, Experiences in Groups and Other Papers. Tavistock, 1961

A. D. Colman and W. H. Bexton, eds., Group Relations Reader 1. Washington, D. C.: A. K. Rice Institute, 1975.

______ and M. H. Geller, eds., Group Relations Reader 2. Washington, D. C.: A. K. Rice Institute, 1985.

*Eisold, Kenneth (1994) ‘Intolerance of Diversity in Psychoanalytic Institutes’, Int. J. Psycho-anal. 75: 785-800 .

R. D. Hinshelwood, What Happens in Groups: Psychoanalysis, the Individual and the Community. Free Association Books, 1987.

L. Hirschorn, The Workplace Within. MIT Press, 1988.

P. Hoggett, Partisans in an Uncertain World: The Psychoanalysis of Engagement. Free Association Books, 1992

E. Jaques, The Changing Culture of a Factory: A Study of Authority and Participation in an Industrial Setting. Routledge, 1951.

______, ‘Social Systems as a Defence Against Persecutory and Depressive Anxiety’, in M. Klein et al., eds., New Directions in Psycho-Analysis: The Significance of Infant Conflict in the Pattern of Adult Behaviour. Tavistock, 1955, pp. 478-98.

L. Kreeger, ed., The Large Group: Dynamics and Therapy. Constable, 1975.

W. G. Lawrence, ‘Won from the Void of the Infinite: Experiences of Social Dreaming’, Free Associations (no.22) 2:259-94,1991.

______, ed., Exploring Individual and Organizational Boundaries. Wiley, 1979

T. Main, ‘Some Psychodynamics of Large Groups’, in Kreeger, ed., The Large Group, pp. 57-86; reprinted in Main, The Ailment and Other Psychoanalytic Essays. Free Association Books, 1989, pp. 100-22.

**Isabel Menzies Lyth, ‘The Functioning of Social Systems as a Defence Against Anxiety’ (1959), reprinted in Containing Anxiety in Institutions: Selected Essays., Vol. 1. Free Association Books, 1988, pp. 43-88.

______, The Dynamics of the Social: Selected Essays, Vol.II. Free Association Books, 1989, esp. chs 1-3.

E. J. Miller, Experiential Learning in Groups, I & II’, in E. Trist and H. Murray, eds., The Social Engagement of Social Science, Vol. I: The Socio-Psychological Perspective. Free Association Books, 1990, pp. 165-98 (see also other essays in this volume by Sutherland, Bridger, Rice).

G. Morgan, Images of Organization. Sage, 1986.

A. Obholtzer and Roberts, Vega, eds. (1994) The Unconscious at Work: Individual and Organizational Stress in the Human Services. Routledge.

M. Pines, ed., Bion and Group Psychotherapy. Routledge, 1985.

E. R. Shapiro and A. W. Carr, Lost in Familiar Places: Creating New Connections between the Individual and Society. Yale University Press, 1991

*P. Turquet, ‘Threats to Identity in the Large Group’, in Kreeger, ed., The Large Group, pp. 87-144.

E. V. Wolfenstein, ‘Group Phantasies and the “Individual”’, Free Associations no. 20:1 50-80,1990.

D. Woodhouse and P. Pengelly (1991) Anxiety and the Dynamics of Collaboration. Aberdeen.

R. M. Young, ‘Scientism in the History of Management Theory’, Science as Culture 8:118-43, 1990.

______ ‘Benign and Virulent Projective Identification in Groups and Institutions’, paper read at the First European Conference of the Rowantree Foundation on ‘Projective Identification in Institutions’ at the Garden House, Wierden, Holland, April 1992.

______ (1994) Mental Space. Process Press, esp. chs. 5 and 9.

R. M. Young/Psychother. Stud./1.95



*P. L. Berger and T. Luckmann (1967) The Social Construction of Reality. N. Y., Anchor, 1967; also Penguin.

L. B. Brown (1973) Ideology. Penguin Education.

T. Eagleton (191) Ideology: An Introduction. Verso.

N. Harris (1971) Beliefs in Society: The Problem of Ideology.


D. Ingleby (1972) 'Ideology and the Human Sciences: Some Comments on the Role of Reification in Psychology and Psychiatry', in T. Pateman, ed., Counter Course: A Handbook for Course Criticism. Penguin, pp 51-81.

J. Larrian (1979) The Concept of Ideology, Hutchinson.

G. Lichtheim (1965) 'The Concept of Ideology', History and Theory 4:164-95; reprinted in The Concept of Ideology and Other Essays. N.Y., Vintage, 1967, pp. 3-46.

G. Lukács (1923) History and Class Consciousness. Merlin, 1971, esp. ‘Reification and the Consciousness of the Proletariat', pp. 83-148.

**K. Mannheim (1960) Ideology and Utopia: An Introduction to the Sociology of Knowledge. Routledge.

J. Plamenatz (1971) Ideology. Macmillan.

G. Rosen (1946) 'The Philosophy of Ideology and the Emergence of Modern Medicine in France', Bull. Hist. Med. 20: 328-39.

B. Susser (1988) The Grammar of Modern Ideology. Routledge.

O. Temkin (1946) 'The Philosophical Background of Magendie's Physiology', Bull. Hist. Med. 20: 10-35.

J. B. Thompson (1984) Studies in the Theory of Ideology. Cambridge, Polity.

R. M. Young (l971) 'Evolutionary Biology and Ideology: Then and Now', Science Studies 1: 177-206; reprinted in W. Fuller, ed., The Biological Revolution; Social Good or Social Evil? N. Y., Anchor, l972, pp. 241-82.

______ (1973) 'The Human Limits of Nature', in J. Benthall, ed., The Limits of Human Nature. Allen Lane, pp. 235-74.

______ (1977) 'Science is Social Relations', Radical Sci. J. 5: 65-131.

______ (1981).‘The Naturalization of Value Systems in the Human Sciences’, in Problems in the Biological and Human Sciences. Milton Keynes: Open University Press, pp. 63-110

______ (1992) ‘Science, Ideology and Donna Haraway’ Sci. as Culture. (no. 15) 3:7-46.

S. Zizek (1989) The Sublime Object of Ideology. Verso.

End of Ideology Debate

D. Bell (1962) The End of Ideology: On the Exhaustion of Political Ideas in the Fifties. revised ed. N. Y: Free Press.

C. Lasch (1968) ‘The Cultural Cold War: A Short History of the Congress of Cultural Freedom’, in The Agony of the Amerian Left. N. Y.: Vintage, ch. 3.

A. MacIntyre (1971) ‘The End of Ideology and the End of the End of Ideology’, in Against the Self-Images of the Age. Duckworth, ch. 1.

M. Rejai, ed. (1971) Decline of Ideology? N. Y.: Aldine/ Atherton.

C. I. Waxman, ed. (1969) The End of Ideology Debate. N. Y.: Clarion/ Simon and Schuster.


The culture of British psychoanalysis and psychotherapy

Abram, J. (1992) Individual Psychotherapy Trainings: A Guide. Free Association Books.

Barham. Peter (1984) ‘Cultural Forms and Psychoanalysis: Some Problems’, in B. Richards, ed., Capitalism and Infancy: Essays on Psychoanalysis and Politics. Free Association Books, pp. 38-54.

Berke, Joseph et al., eds. (1995) Sanctuary: The Arbours Experience of Alternative Community Care. Process Press.

Berrios, Germann and Freeman, H. (1991) 150 Years of British Psychiatry 1841-1991. Gaskell.

Cooper, R. et al. (1989) ‘Beginnings’, in Cooper et al, 1989a, pp. 15-30.

_______ (1989a) Thresholds between Philosophy and Psychoanalysis . Free Association Books.

Dicks, Henry V. (1970) Fifty Years of the Tavistock Clinic. Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Dyne, D. (1985) ‘Questions of Training: A Contribution from a Peripatetic Cousin’, Free Assns. 3: 92-147

Dyne, D. (1988) ‘Whither Rugby? -Towards a Profession of Psychotherapy’, Brit. J. Psychother. 4: 148-55.

Herman, Nini (1989) ‘Ilse Seglow in Her Time: Reflections on Her Life and Work’, Brit. J. Psychother. 5: 431-41.

Hinshelwood, R. D. (1985) ‘Questions of Training’, Free Assns. 2: 7-18.

Lyth, Isabel Menzies (1988) ‘Reflections on My Work: Isabel Menzies Lyth in Conversation with Ann Scott and Robert M. Young’, in Containing Anxiety in Institutions: Selected Essays. Free Association Books, pp. 1-42.

Malcolm, Janet (1984) In the Freud Archives. Cape.

Masson, Jeffrey M. (1990) Final Analysis: The Making and Unmaking of a Psychoanalyst. N. Y.: Addison-Wesley.

Oakley, Chris(1989) ‘Introducing an Incomplete Project’, in R. Cooper et al., 1989, pp. 1-14.

*Peddar, J. R. (1989) ‘Courses in Psychotherapy: Evolution and Current Trends’, Brit. J. Psychother. 6: 203-21.

______ (1990) ‘Lines of Advance in Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy’, Psychoanal. Psychother. 4: 201-17.

Pines, Malcolm (1991) ‘The Development of the Psychodynamic Movement’, in Berrios and Freeman, eds., 1991, pp. 206-31.

Roudinesco, E. (1990) Jacques Lacan & Co.: A History of Psychoanalysis in France 1925-1985. Free Association Books.

*Rustin, M. (1991) ‘The Social Organization of Secrets’, in his The Good Society and the Inner World: Psychoanalysis, Politics and Culture . Verso, pp. 87-114.

Scarlett, Jean (1991) ‘Getting Established: Initiatives in Psychotherapy Training Since World War Two’, Brit. J. Psychother. 7: 260-67.

Trist, Eric and Murray, H. (1990) ‘Historical Overview: The Foundation and Development of the Tavistock Institute’, E. Trist and H. Murray, eds., The Social Engagement of Social Science Vol. I: The Socio-Psychological Perspective. Free Association Books, pp. 1-34.

Turkle, Shirley (1978) Psychoanalytic Politics: Jacques Lacan and Freud’s French Revolution. N. Y.: Basic Books; 2nd ed., revised and updated, Free Association Books, 1992.

*Young, R. M. (1990) ‘The Culture of British Psychoanalysis’, talk delivered to the Philadelphia Association (typescript).

Relations between Psychotherapy and Politics, Values and Ideology

Klauber, J. (1986) ‘The Psychoanalyst as a Person’, in Difficulties in the Analytic Encounter. Free Association Books/Maresfield, pp. 123-39

Money-Kyrle, R. (1952) ‘Psycho-Analysis and Ethics’, in M. Klein et al., eds. New Directions in Psycho-Analysis: The Significance of Infant Conflict in the Pattern of Adult Behaviour. Tavistock, 1955; reprinted Maresfield, 1985, pp. 421-39.

Ramzy, I. (1965) ‘The Place of Values in Psycho-Analysis’, Int. J. Psycho-anal. 46: 97-106

*Young, R. M. (1988) ‘Psychoanalysis, Values and Politics’, talk delivered to Psychotherapists Against Nuclear Disaster (typescript).

______ (1994) ‘Character and Morality’ (typescript)

Zinberg, N. E. (1967) ‘Psycho-analytic Training and Psycho-analytic Values’, Int. J. Psychoanal. 48:88-96.

Other Aspects of the Sociology of Psychoanalytic Knowledge

Burnham, John C. (1967) Psychoanalysis and American Medicine, 1894-1918: Medicine, Science, and Culture. N. Y.: International Universities.

______ (1974) ‘The Medical Origins and Cultural Use of Freud’s Instinctual Drive Theory’, Psychoanal. Quart. 43: 193-217

Freud, Sigmund (1926) ‘The Question of Lay Analysis’, S. E. 20, pp. 179-258.

*______ (1933) ‘The Question of a Weltanschauung’, New Introductory Lectures, S. E. 22, pp 158-82.

*Gay, Peter (1988) Freud: A Life for Our Time. Dent.

Gellner, Ernest (1985) The Psychoanalytic Movement. Paladin.

Grosskurth, Phylllis (1986) Melanie Klein: Her World and Her Work. Hodder & Stoughton.

*______ (1991) The Secret Ring: Freud’s Inner Circle and the Politics of Psychoanalysis. Cape.

Jacoby, Russell (1983 The Repression of Psychoanalysis: Otto Fenichel and the Political Freudians. N. Y.: Basic; reprinted Chicago, 1986.

Jones, Ernest (1953-57) The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud, 3 vols. N. Y.: Basic.

King, Pearl and Steiner, Ricardo, eds. (1991) The Freud-Klein Controversies. Routledge.

Lemlij, Moises, ed. (1993) Psychoanalysis in Latin America. Latin American Psychoanalytical Federation/International Psychoanalytical Association.

Lindner, Robert (1950) ‘Who Shall Practice Psychotherapy?’, Amer. J. Psychother. 4: 432-56.

Kutter, Peter (1992) Psychoanalysis International: A Guide to Psychoanalysis Throughout the World. Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt: Frommann-Holzboog, esp. ch on Switzerland.

Roazen, Paul (1968) Freud: Political and Social Thought. N. Y.: Knopf.

______ (1974) Freud and His Followers; reprinted New York University Press, 1984.

Shakow, David and Rapaport, David 1964) The Influence of Freud on American Psychology. N. Y.: International Universities Press.

Steiner, Ricardo (1985) ‘Some Thoughts about Tradition and Change Arising from an Examinaton of the British Psycho-Analytical Society’s Controversial Discussions (1943-44)’, Internat. Rev. Psycho-Anal. 12: 27-71.

______ (1989) ‘It’s a New Kind of Diaspora...’, Internat. Rev. Psycho-Anal. 16: 263-21.


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