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ANALYTIC FRAME, BOUNDARIES, ACTING OUT

On the analytic frame the best single source is:

**Blejer, J. (1966) ‘Psychoanalysis of the Psycho-analytic Frame’, Int. J. Psycho-anal.

There is a new introductory volume:

Gray, Anne (1994) An Introduction to the Therapeutic Frame. Routledge pb.

Standard sources are:

Stone, L. (1961) The Analytic Situation. Internat. Univ. Press.

Langs, R. (1977) 'Psychoanalytic Situation: The Framework', in B. Wolman, ed., International Encyclopedia of Psychiatry, Psychology, Psychoanalysis, and Neurology. Aesculapius, pp. 220-22.

More accessible is his recent paperback:

*Langs, R. (1992) A Clinical Workbook for Psychotherapists. Karnac. See index entry: ‘ground rules’ [frame].

Langs writes a lot about this matter in his weighty tomes on theory and technique. I prefer to follow the continuing thread about this topic running through

** Langs, R. and Searles, H. (1980) Intrapsychic and Interpersonal Dimensions of Treatment: A Clinical Dialogue. Aronson. See index for specific passages, but the whole book is a feast, not least because of their contrasting characters and styles.

For something more succinct, have a look at the comprehensive volume:

*Etchegoyen, R. H. (1991) The Fundamentals of Psychoanalytic Technique. chs. 36-38, 43, 52-54 on the analytic situation and setting, container/contained and acting out.

There is a useful chapter in

Thomä, H. and Cachelë, H. (1987) 'Rules', in Psychoanalytic Practice, Vol. 1, Springer-Verlag, pp. 215-52.

See index entries on 'frame', 'boundaries', and 'space, analytic' in

Casement, P. (1985) On Learning from the Patient. Routledge.

______(1991) Further Learning from the Patient: The Analytic Space and Process. Routledge.

On acting out, start with

*Laplanche, J. and Pontalis, J.-B. (1983) The Language of Psychoanalysis. Hogarth; reprinted Maresfield.

There is a useful introduction in

Sandler, J. et al. (1979) The Patient and the Analyst. Maresfield, ch. 9.

On the subtler debates about acting out, see

Boesky, D. (1982) 'Acting Out: A Reconsideration of the Concept', Int. J. Psycho-anal. 63: 39-55.

Gaddini, E. (1982) 'Acting Out in the Psychoanalytic Session', ibid.

63: 57-64.

There is a symposium on acting out, with several articles, commentaries and a discussion in volume 49 (1968) of Int. J.Psycho-anal.

The discussions I have found most helpful are in Etchegoyen, op. cit., chs. 52-54.

The literature on transference and transference love is central to these issues. See:

*Freud, S. (1915) ‘Observations on Transference Love’, S. E. 12: 157-71.

The best overall source on this issue is:

Racker, H. (1968) Transference and Countertransference. Hogarth; reprinted Maresfield pb, 1982.

See also:

*Bergmann, M. S. (1986) ‘Transference Love and Love in Real life’, Int. J. Psychoanal. Psychother. 11: 27-45; reprinted in his The Anaatomy of Loving. Columbia pb, 1987, pp. 213-28.

Young, R. M. (1994) ‘Analytic Space: Countertransference’, ch. 4 of Mental Space (Process Press pb), pp. 53-72.

On abstinence and its vicissitudes (or therapists acting out), see

Rutter, P. (1990) Sex in the Forbidden Zone. Unwin.

Bates, C. M. and Brodsky, A. M. (1989) Sex in the Therapy Hour: A Case of Professional Incest. Guilford.

Russell, Janice (1993) Out of Bounds: Sexual Exploitation in Counselling and Therapy. Sage pb.

For personal accounts of failure to maintain boundaries, see

Hill, J. (1993) ‘Am I a Kleinian? Is Anyone?’, Brit. J. Psychother. 9: 463-75 - a candid account of three Keinian analysts’ very idiosyncratic behaviour about boundaries.

Fox, R. P. (1984) ‘The Principle of Abstinence Reconsidered’, Int. J. Psycho-Anal. 11: 227-35

Ferguson, S. (1973) A Guard Within. Chatto, 1973; reprinted Flamingo, 1987 - an account of a patient whose therapist saw fit to relax many boundaries.

*Little, M. (1985) 'Winnicott Working in Areas where Psychotic Anxieties Predominate', Free Assns. 3: 9-42 - where Winnicott does.

Carotenuto, A. (1984) A Secret Symmetry: Sabina Spielrein between Jung and Freud. Routledge - about one of Jung's patients who fell in love with him.

France, A. (1988) Consuming Psychotherapy. Free Association Books - a patient's account of three therapies and on the literature on boundaries, in which she advocates less boundary-maintenance, while revealing the consequences.

Masson, J. (1991) Final Analysis. Harper Collins - in which the notorious apostate describes a training analysis with practically no boundaries.

There are well-known accounts of rule-breaking which the authors believed to be beneficial:

*Coltart, N. (1986) '"Slouching towards Bethlehem" ... or Thinking the Unthinkable in Psychoanalysis', in G. Kohon, ed., The British School of Psychoanalysis: The Independent Tradition. Free Association Books, pp. 185-99; reprinted in her collection, Slouching Toward Bethlehem... (Free Association Books pb), pp. 1-14.

Symington, N. (1986) 'The Analyst's Act of Freedom as Agent of Therapeutic Change', in Kohon (1986), pp. 253-70.

There is a useful brief discussion of these issues about self-revelation and 'expressive uses of the countertrasnsference' in

Rayner, E. (1990) The Independent Mind in British Psychoanalysis. Free Association Books, pp. 289-96.

On boundaries in the analytic and post-analytic relationship, see

Blomfield, O. H. D. (1985) ‘Psychoanalytic Supervision - An Overview’, Int. Rev. Psycho-anal. 12: 401-9

Crick, P (1991) ‘Good Supervision: On the Experience of Being Supervised’, Psychoanal. Psychother. 5: 235-45.

Limintani, A. (1989) ‘The Training Analyst and the Difficulties Associated with Psychoanalytic Training’, in his Between Freud and Klein: The Psychoanalytic Quest for Knowledge and Truth. Free Association Books, pp. 73-87.

Norman, H. F. et al. (1976) ‘The Fate of the Transference Neurosis after Termination of a Satisfactory Analysis’, J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn. 24: 471-98

Wallerstein, R. S., ed. (1981) Becoming a Psychoanalyst: A Study of Psychoanalytic Supervision. N. Y.: International Universities Press.

*Schachter, J. (1990) ‘Post-Termination Patient-Analyst Contact: I. Analyst’s Attitudes and Experience, II. Impact on Patients’, Int. J. Psycho-anal. 71: 475-86.

*Schachter, J. (1992) ‘Concepts of Termination and Post-Termination Patient-Analyst Contact’, Int. J. Psycho-anal. 73: 137-54.

Grinberg, L. (1990) ‘Theoretical and Clinical Aspects of Supervision’, Part Four of his The Goals of Psychoanalysis: Identification, Identity and Supervision. Karnac, pp. 289-369.

Peddar, J. R. (1986) ’Reflections on the Theory and Practice of Supervision’, Psychoanal. Psychother. 2: 1-12.

R. M. Young/Psychotherapeutic Studies x.94

CONCEPTS OF THE INNER WORLD

READINGS

* Freud, S. (1933) ‘The Dissection of the Psychical Personality’, New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis. S.E. 22, pp. 57-80.

Rapaport, D. and Gill, M. (1959) ‘The Points of View and Assumptions of Metapsychology’, Int. J. Psycho-anal. 40: 1-10.

**Stein, R. (1990) ‘A New Look at the Theory of Melanie Klein’, Int. J. Psycho-anal. 71: 499-511.

*Young, R. M. (1968) ‘Association of Ideas’, in P. P. Wiener, ed., Dictionary of the History of Ideas. N. Y.: Scribner’s, vol. 1, pp. 111-18.

______ (1970) Mind, Brain and Adaptation in the Nineteenth Century. Oxford: Clarendon; reprinted N. Y.: Oxford, 1990, ch. 1, pp. 94-100,121-33, 172-90.

______ (1985) ‘The Role of Psychology in the Nineteenth-Century Evolutionary Debate, in Darwin’s Metaphor: Nature’s Place in Victorian Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press pb, pp. 56-78.

______ (1986) ‘Freud: Scientist and/or Humanist’, Free Assns. 6: 7-35.

______ (1988) ‘Biography: The Basic Discipline for a Human Science’, Free Assns.11: 108-30.

**______ (1994) Mental Space. Process Press pb, chs. 1, 3.

R. M. Young/Psychotherapeutic Studies X.94

THE UNCONSCIOUS AND PSYCHOTIC PROCESSES

READING LIST

*Bion, W. R. (1955) 'Group Dynamics - a Re-view', in Klein et al., eds. (1955), pp. 440-77.

______ (1961) Experiences in Groups and Other Papers. Tavistock.

______ (1967) Second Thoughts: Selected Papers on Psycho-Analysis. Heinemann; reprinted Karnac, 1984.

Foucault, M. (1967) Madness and Civilisation: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Tavistock.

Freud, S. (1953-73) The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, 24 vols. Hogarth. (S.E.)

***______ (1915) ‘The Unconscious’, S. E. 14, pp. 160-215.

______ (1930) Civilization and Its Discontents. S.E. 21, pp. 59-145.

Gedo, J. E. (1986) Conceptual Issues in Psychoanalysis: Essays in History and Method. New York: Analytic Press; chapter on Klein.

Gordon, Colin (1990) 'Histoire de la folie: An Unknown Book by Michel Foucault', History of the Human Sciences 3:3-26 (with several responses, pp. 27-67).

Hinshelwood, R. D. (1987) What Happens in Groups: Psychoanalysis, the Individual and the Community. Free Association Books.

***______ (1991) A Dictionary of Kleinian Thought, revised ed. Free Association Books pb, esp. entries on Early anxiety situations Depressive position, Paranoid-schizoid position.

**Isaacs, S. (1952) 'The Nature and Function of Phantasy', in Klein et al. (1952), pp. 67-121.

Jaques, E. (1955) 'Social Systems as Defence against Persecutory and Depressive Anxiety', in Klein et al., eds. (1955), pp. 478-98.

King, P. & Steiner, R. (1991) The Freud-Klein Controversies 1941-45. Tavistock/Routledge pb.

*Klein, M. (1935) 'A Contribution to the Psychgogenesis of Manic-Depressive States', in Klein (1975), vol. 1, pp. 262-89

______ (1975) The Writings of Melanie Klein, 4 vols. Hogarth; reprinted Virago pb.

______ et al. (1952) Developments in Psycho-Analysis. Hogarth; reprinted Karnac pb, 1989.

______ et al., eds. New Directions in Psycho-Analysis: The Significance of Infant Conflict in the Patterns of Adult Behaviour. Tavistock; reprinted Maresfield Library pb, 1977.

Klein, S. (1980) 'Autistic Phenomena in Neurotic Patients', Int. J. Psycho-Anal. 61: 395-402.

Laing, R. D. (1970) The Divided Self. Harmondsworth: Penguin pb.

Laplanche, J. and Pontalis, J.- B. (1973) The Language of Psycho-Analysis. Hogarth; reprinted Maresfield pb..

MacIntyre, A. C. (1958) The Unconscious. Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Meltzer, D. (1978) The Kleinian Development, Parts 1-3. Strath Tay: Clunie.

______ (1988) 'The Relation of Anal Masturbation to Projective Identification', in Spillius (1988), vol. 1, pp. 102-16.

______ et al. (1975) Explorations in Autism: A Psycho-Analytical Study. Clunie pb.

**Menzies Lyth, I. (1988) 'The Functioning of Social Systems as a Defence against Anxiety' (1951), in Containing Anxiety in Institutions: Selected Essays, Vol. 1. Free Association Books pb, pp. 43-85.

Miller, E. (1990) 'Experiential Learning Groups I: The Development of the Leicester Model', in E. Trist and H. Murray, eds., The Social Engagement of Social Science: A Tavistock Anthology. Vol. 1: The Socio-Psychological Perspective. Free Association Books pb, pp. 165-85.

*Riviere, J. (1952) 'General Introduction', in Klein et al. (1952), pp. 1-36.

***______ (1952) 'On the Genesis of Psychical Conflict in Early Infancy', in Klein et al. (1952), pp. 37-66.

Spillius, E. (1988) Melanie Klein Today, 2 vols. Routledge pb .

*Steiner, John (1987) 'The Interplay between Pathological Organizations and the Paranoid-Schizoid and Depressive positions', Int. J. Psycho-Anal. 68:69-80; reprinted in Spillius, ed. (1988), vol. 1, pp. 324-42

______ (1994) Psychic Retreats:Pathological Organizations in Psychotic, Neurotic and Borderline Patients. Routledge pb.

Turquet, P. (1975) 'Threats to Identity in the Large Group', in L. Kreeger, ed., The Large Group: Dynamics and Therapy. Constable; reprinted Maresfield Library pb, n.d., pp.87-144.

Tustin, F. (1986) Autistic Barriers in Neurotic Patients. Karnac pb.

**Young, R.M. (1994) ’Primitive Space: Psychotic Anxieties’, in Mental Space. Process Press, pp. 73-92.

Zetzel, E. R. (1953) ‘The Depressive Position’, in P. Greenacre, ed., Affective Disorders. International Universities Press, pp. 84-116.

R. M. YOUNG/PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC STUDIES XI.94

TRANSFERENCE AND COUNTERTRANSFERENCE

READINGS

M. L. J. Abercrombie (1989) The Anatomy of Judgement: an Investigation into the Processes of Perception and Reasoning. Free Association Books.

A. Alexandris and G. Vaslamatzis, eds. (1993) Countertransference: Theory, Technique, Teaching. Karnac pb.

**M. Bergmann (1985) ‘Transference love and love in real life’, Int.. J. Psycho-anal. 11; reprinted in The Anatomy of Loving: The Story of Man’s Quest to Know What Love Is. Columbia pb, 1987, pp. 213-228

W. Bion (1970) Attention and Interpretation. Tavistock.

D. Bloor (1977) Knowledge and Social Imagery. Routledge.

C. Bollas (1987) 'Expressive uses of the counter-transference', in The Shadow of the Object: Psychoanalysis of the Unthought Known. Free Association Books.

______ (1989) Forces of Destiny: Psychoanalysis and Human Idiom. Free Association Books.

*I. Brenman Pick (1985) 'Working through in the counter-transference. Int. J. Psycho-Anal. 66: 157-66; reprinted in Spillius, 1988, vol. 2, pp. 34-47.

J. Breuer and S. Freud (l895) Studies on Hysteria. S.E. 2.

J. Bruner (1951) 'Personality dynamics and the process of perceiving', in R. V.. Blake and G. V. Ramsey, eds. Perception: an Approach to Personality. New York: Ronald Press.

*N. Coltart (1986a) '"Slouching towards Bethlehem"...or thinking the unthinkable in psychoanalysis', in Kohon (1986), pp. 185-99.

G. Devereux, ed. (1953) Psychoanalysis and the Occult. New York: International Universities Press.

M. Douglas (1975) Implicit Meanings: Essays in Anthropology. Routledge.

J. B. Eigner (1986) 'Squid and projective identification', Free Assns. 7:75-8.

L. Epstein and A. H. Feiner (1983) Countertransference: The Therapist's Contribution to the Therapeutic Situation. Aronson.

O. Fenichel (1941) Problems in Psychoanalytic Technique. New York: Psychoanalytic Quarterly.

______ (1945) The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis. New York: Norton.

K. Figlio (1978) 'Chlorosis and chronic disease in nineteenth-century Britain: the social constitution of somatic illness in a capitalist society', Internat. J. Health Services 8:589-617.

______ (1979) 'Sinister medicine: a critique of left approaches to medicine', Radical Science J. 9:14-68.

______ (1985) 'Medical diagnosis, class dynamics, social stability, in L. Levidow and R. M. Young, eds., Science, Technology and the Labour Process: Marxist Studies, Vol. 2., pp. 129-65.

______(1990) ,'The environment: topographies of the internal and external worlds', talk delivered to the Centre for Psycho-analytic Studies, University of Kent.

S. Freud (1895) Project for a Scientific Psychology,

in his The Origins of Psycho-analysis: Letters to Wilhelm Fliess, Drafts and Notes: 1887-1902. New York: Basic Books, 1954.

______ (1900) The Interpretation of Dreams. S.E. 4 and 5.

______ (1905) 'Fragment of an analysis of a case of hysteria'. S.E. 7, pp. 1-122.

______ (1910) 'The future prospects for psycho-analytic therapy'. S.E. 11, pp. 139-51.

*_____ (1911-15) Papers on Technique, S. E. 12, pp. 85-173.

______ (1912) 'Recommendations to physicians practising psycho-analysis'. S.E. 12, pp. 109-20.

*______ (1917) ‘Transference’, in Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis. S. E. 15, pp. 431-47.

_____ (1922) 'Some neurotic mechanisms in jealousy paranoia and homosexuality'. S.E. 18, pp. 221-232.

______ (1923) The Ego and the Id. S.E. 19, pp. 1-66.

______ (1933) New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-analysis. S.E. 22, pp. 1-182.

______ (1966-74) The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, 24 vols. Hogarth (S.E.)

P. Gay (1988) Freud: A Life for Our Time. Dent.

P. L. Giovacchini (1989) Countertransference: Triumphs and Catastrophes. Aronson.

E. Glover (1927) 'Lectures on technique in psychoanalysis', Int. J. Psycho-Anal. 8: 311-38.

D. Haraway (1989) Primate Visions: Gender, Race, and Nature in the World of Modern Science. Routledge.

_______ (l99l) Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. Free Association Books.

*P. Heimann (l949-50) 'On counter-transference', in Heimann (1990), pp. 73-9.

______ (l959-60) 'Counter-transference', in Heimann (1990), pp. 151-60.

______ (1990) About Children and Children-no Longer: The Work of Paula Heimann. Routledge.

R. D. Hinshelwood (1989) A Dictionary of Kleinian Thought. Free Association Books.

R. Horton (1967) 'African traditional thought and western science' Africa 37: 50-71, 155-87.

*B. Joseph (1989) 'Transference: the total situation', in her Psychic Equilibrium and Psychic Change: Selected Papers. Tavistock.

G. Kohon (1986) 'Countertransference: an Independent view', in Kohon (1986a), pp. 51-73.

______(1986a) The British School of Psychoanalysis: The Independent Tradition. Free Association Books.

R. Langs and H. F. Searles (1980) Intrapsychic and Interpersonal Dimensions of Treatment: A Clinical Dialogue. Aronson.

J. Laplanche and J.- B. Pontalis (1983) The Language of Psycho-Analysis. Hogarth Press.

M. Little (1950) 'Countertransference and the patient's response to it', in Little (1986), pp. 33-50.

______ (1957) '"R" - the analyst's total response to his patient's needs', in Little (1986), pp. 51-80.

*______ (1985) 'Winnicott working in areas where psychotic anxieties predominate'. Free Assns. 3:.9-42.

______ (1986) Transference Neurosis and Transference Psychosis: Toward Basic Unity. Free Association Books and Maresfield Library.

______ (1987) 'On the value of regression to dependence'. Free Assns. 10: 7-22.

______ (1989) Review of Selected Letters of D. W. Winnicott. Free Assns. 18: 133-8.

______ (1990) Psychotic Anxieties and Containment: A Personal Record of an Analysis with Winnicott. Aronson.

B. Low (1935) 'The psychological compensation of the analyst'. Int. J. Psycho-Anal. 16: 1-8.

T. Main (1989) The Ailment and Other Psychoanalytic Essays. Free Association Books.

J. McDougall (1990) 'Countertransference and primitive communication', in Plea for a Measure of Abnormality. Free Association Books, pp. 247-98.

H. C. Meyers, ed. (1986) Between Analyst and Patient: New Dimensions of Countertransference and Transference. Hillside, NJ: Analytic Press.

*R. Money-Kyrle (1956) 'Normal counter-transference and some of its deviations’, in The Collected Papers of Roger Money- Kyrle. Strath Tay, Perthshire, Clunie Press, 1978, pp. 330-42; reprinted in Spillius, 1988, vol. 2., pp. 22-33.

J. Natterson (1991) Beyond Countertransference: The Therapist's Subjectivity in the Therapeutic Process. Aronson.

D. W. Orr (1988) 'Transference and countertransference: a historical survey', in Wolstein (1988), pp. 91-110.

***H. Racker (1968) Transference and Countertransference. Maresfield Reprints (1982).

D. Rapaport and M. M. Gill (1959) 'The points of view and assumptions of metapsychology'. Int. J. Psycho-Anal. 40: 1-10.

E. Rayner (1991) The Independent Mind in British Psychoanalysis. Free Association Books pb.

A. Reich (1951) 'On countertransference', Int. J. Psycho-Anal. 32: 25-31.

W. Reich (1933) Character Analysis: Principles and Techniques for Psychoanalysts in Practice and Training, 2nd ed., New York: Orgone Institute.

R. Rorty (1980) Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature. Oxford: Blackwell.

______ (1982) Consequences of Pragmatism (Essays: 1972-80). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

______ (1989) Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity. Cambridge University Press.

**M. Rustin (1989) 'Identity: fragmentation and recovery in psychoanalytic psychotherapy'. Discourse Social/Social Discourse 2: 311-19.

H. F. Searles (1960) The Nonhuman Environment: In Normal Development and in Schizophrenia. Madison, CT., International Universities Press.

______ (1975) 'The patient as therapist to his analyst', in Searles (1979), pp. 380-459.

______ (1976) 'Transitional phenomena and therapeutic symbiosis', in Searles (1979), pp. 503-76.

**______ (1978-9) 'Concerning Transference and Countertransference'. J. Psychoanal. Psychother. 7:1 65-88 (written in 1949).

______ (1979) Countertransference and Related Subjects. Madison, CT: International Universities Press.

E. Sharpe (1930) 'The technique of psychoanalysis'. Int. J. Psycho-Anal. 2: 361-86

E. Slakter, ed. (1987) Countertransference. Aronson.

E. B. Spillius, ed. (1988) Melanie Klein Today, 2 vols. Routledge.

A. Stern (1924) 'On the countertransference in psychoanalysis'. Psychoanal. Rev. 2:166-74.

J. Strachey (1934) 'The nature of the therapeutic action of psychoanalysis'. Int. J. Psycho-Anal. 15: 127-59

N. Symington (1986) 'The analyst's act of freedom as agent of therapeutic change', in Kohon (1986a), pp. 253-72.

D. W. Winnicott (1947) 'Hate in the countertransference', in Through Paediatrics to Psycho-analysis. Hogarth Press (1975), pp. 149-203.

B. Wolstein, ed. (1988) Essential Papers on Countertransference. New York University Press.

R. M. Young (1977) 'Science is social relations', Radical Science. J. 5: 65-131.

______ (1981) 'The naturalization of value systems in the human sciences', in Problems in the Biological and Human Sciences, Milton Keynes: Open University Press, pp. 63-110.

______(1985) Darwin's Metaphor: Nature's Place in Victorian Culture. Cambridge University Press.

______ (1989) 'Transitional phenomena: production and consumption', in B. Richards, ed., Crises of the Self: Further Essays on Psychoanalysis and Politics. Free Association Books, pp. 57-74.

______(1992) 'Science, ideology and Donna Haraway', Sci. as Culture (no.15) 3:7-46.

______ (1992a) 'Darwin's metaphor and the philosophy of science', Sci. as Culture (no. 16) 3:375-403.

______ (1992b) ‘The vicissitudes of transference and countertransference: the work of Harold Searles’, J. Arbours Assn. 9: 24-58; also to appear in Free Assns.

**______ (1994) ‘Analytic space: countertransference’, in Mental Space. Process Press pb, pp. 53-72.

R. M. Y./Psychiotherapeutic Studies 11.94

OEDIPUS COMPLEX

READINGS

Anzieu, Didier. (1986) Freud's Self-Analysis. Hogarth, esp. ch. 3.

*Bell, David. (1992) 'Hysteria - A Contemporary Kleinian Perspective', Brit. J. Psychother. 9: 169-80.

Bion, Wilfred. R. (1955) 'Group Dynamics - a Re-view', in Klein et al, eds. (1955), pp. 440-77.

______ (1961) Experiences in Groups and Other Papers. Tavistock.

Brenner, Charles. (1973) An Elementary Textbook of Psychoanalysis., revised ed. N. Y.: International Universities.

Britton, Ron. (1989) 'The Missing Link: Parental Sexuality in the Oedipus Complex', in Britton et al. (1989), pp. 83-102.

*______ (1992) 'The Oedipus Situation and the Depressive position', in R. Anderson, ed., Clinical Lectures on Klein and Bion. Routledge, pp. 34-45.

______ et al. (1989) The Oedipus Complex Today: Clinical Implications. Karnac.

Chasseguet-Smirgel, Janine (1985) Creativity and Perversion. Free Association Books.

______ (1985) The Ego Ideal: A Psychoanalytic Essay on the Malady of the Ideal. Free Association Books.

Chodorow, Nancy. (1978) The Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender. University of California.

Dinnerstein, Dorothy (1776) The Mermaid and the Minotaur: Sexual Arrangements and Human Malaise. N. Y.: Harper & Row, 1977.

Erikson, Erik. (1959) Identity and the Life Cycle: Selected Papers. Psychological Issues, vol. 1, no., 1, monograph 1. International Universities.

Freud, Sigmund. (1953-73) The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud., 24 vols. Hogarth.

(S. E.).

______ (1900) The Interpretation of Dreams. S. E. 4 and 5.

______ (1910) 'A Special Type of Choice of Object Made by Men',

S. E. 11, pp. 163-76.

______ (1913) Totem and Taboo. S. E. 13, pp. 1-162.

______ (1923) The Ego and the Id. S. E. 19, pp. 3-66.

______ (1923a) 'The Infantile Genital Organization: An Interpolation into the Theory of Sexuality', S. E. 19, pp. 141-48.

______ (1924) 'The Dissolution of the Oedipus Complex', S. E. 19, pp. 171-79.

______ (1925) 'Some Psychical Consequences of the Anatomical Distinction between the Sexes', S. E. 19, pp. 243-60.

*______ (1930) Civilization and Its Discontents. S. E. 21, pp. 59-145.

______ (1931) 'Female Sexuality', S. E. 21, pp. 223-43.

______ (1933) New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis.

S. E. 22, pp. 3-182.

______ (1950) Extracts from the Fliess Papers. S. E. 1, pp. 175-280.

Green, André. (1986) 'The Dead Mother', in On Private Madness. Hogarth, pp. 142-73.

Hinshelwood, R. D. (1991) 'Oedipus Complex', in A Dictionary of Kleinian Thought, revised ed., Free Association Books, pp. 57-67.

Jones, Ernest. (1949) Hamlet and Oedipus. N. Y.: Doubleday Anchor.

Klein, Melanie. (1928) 'Early Stages of the Oedipus Conflict', Int. J. Psycho-anal. 9: 167-80; reprinted in Klein (1975), vol. 1, pp. 186-98

**______ (1945) 'The Oedipus Complex in the Light of Early Anxieties', Int. J. Psycho-Anal. 26:11-33; reprinted in Klein (1975), vol. 1, pp. 370-419 and in Britton et al.. (1989), pp. 11-82, esp. summary, pp. 63-82.

______ (1946) 'Notes on Some Schizoid Mechanisms', Int. J. Psycho-anal. 27:99-110, reprinted in Klein (1975), vol. 3, pp. 1-24.

______ (1975) The Writings of Melanie Klein. Hogarth, 5 vols.

______ et al., eds. New Directions in Psycho-Analysis: The Significance of Infant Conflict in the Patterns of Adult Behaviour. Tavistock; reprinted Maresfield, 1977

Limentani, Adam. (1989) 'The Oedipus Myth as Reflected in Problems of Ambivalence and Reparation in the Oedipal Situation', in Between Freud and Klein: The Psychoanalytic Quest for Knowledge and Truth. Free Association, pp. 18-34.

Meltzer, Donald. (1973) Sexual States of Mind. Strath Tay: Clunie.

Mitchell, Juliet. (1974) Psychoanalysis and Feminism. Allen Lane

Rapaport, David. (1967) The Collected Papers of David Rapaport.

N. Y.: Basic.

______ and Gill, M. (1959) 'The Points of View and Assumptions of Metapsychology' Int. J. Psycho-anal. 40: 1-10.

Ross, J, M. (1982) ‘Oedipus Revisited: Laius and the “Laius Complex”’ Psychoanal. Stud. Child. 37: 169-200.

Rudnytsky, Peter. L. (1987) Freud and Oedipus. N. Y.: Columbia.

Sophocles (1947) The Theban Plays. Penguin.

Stein, R. (1990) 'A New Look at the Theory of Melanie Klein', Int. J. Psycho-anal. 71: 499-511.

Steiner, John. (1985) 'Turning a Blind Eye: The Cover Up for Oedipus', Int. Rev. Psycho-anal. 12:161-72.

Temperley, Jane. (in press) 'Is the Oedipus Complex Bad News for Women?' Free Assns.

Waddell, Margot (1989) ‘Gender Identity: Fifty Years on from Freud’, Brit. J. Psychother. 5: 381-9; reprinted in Women: A Cultural Rev. 1: 149-59,1990.

______ (1992) 'From Resemblance to Identity: A Psychoanalytic Perspective on Gender Identity'. typescript.

Young, Robert. M. (1988) 'Consider Laius', Free Assns. 13: 150.

**______ (1994) ‘New Ideas about the Oedipus Complex’, Melanise Klein and Object Relations 12 (no. 2): 1-20.

R.M.Young/Psychother. Stud./xi. '94

PROJECTIVE IDENTIFICATION AND CONTAINER/CONTAINED:

READINGS

Armstrong, D. (1991) 'The "Institution in the Mind": Reflections on the Relation of Psycho-analysis to Work with Institutions', paper read to the conference on Psychoanalysis and the Public Sphere, Polytechnic of East London, 1-2 November.

Berke, J (1989) The Tyranny of Malice: Exploring the Dark Side of Character and Culture. Simon and Schuster.

Bion, W R. (1955) 'Group Dynamics - a Re-view', in Klein et al., eds. (1955), pp. 440-77.

**______ (1959) 'Attacks on Linking', Int. J. Psycho-Anal. 30: 308-15; reprinted in Bion (1967), pp. 93-109.

______(1961) Experiences in Groups and Other Papers. Tavistock.

______(1967) Second Thoughts: Selected Papers on Psycho-Analysis. Heinemann Medical;

38-55.

**Brenman Pick, I. (1985) 'Working Through in the Counter-transference', Int. J. Psycho-anal. 66: 157-66; reprinted in Spillius, ed. (1988), vol. 2, pp. 34-47.

Faimberg, H. (1988) 'The Telescoping of Generations: Genealogy of Certain Identifications', Contemp. Psychoanal. 24: 99-118.

Freud, S. (1953-73) The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, 24 vols. Hogarth. (S. E.).

______(1921) Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego. S. E..18, pp. 67-143.

______(1930) Civilization and Its Discontents, S. E. 21, pp. 59-145.

______(1933) New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis, S. E. 22, pp. 3-182.

Grinberg, L. (1990) The Goals of Psychoanalysis: Identification, Identity and Supervision. Karnac.

Grotstein, J. (1981) Splitting and Projective Identification .Aronson.

Hinshelwood, R. D. (1987) What Happens in Groups. Free Association Books.

****______(1991) A Dictionary of Kleinian Thought, 2nd ed. Free Association Books, esp. entries on Projective Identification, Bion and Containing.

Jaques, E. (1951) The Changing Culture of a Factory: A Study of Authority and Participation in an Industrial Setting. Routledge & Kegan Paul.

*______(1955) 'Social Systems as a Defence against Persecutory and Depressive Anxiety', in Klein et al., eds. (1955), pp. 478-98.

Klein, M. (1935) 'A Contribution to the Psychogenesis of Manic-Depressive States', in Love, Guilt and Reparation and Other Works 1921-1945. Hogarth, 1975, pp. 262-89.

***______(1946) 'Notes on Some Schizoid Mechanisms', in Envy and Gratitude and Other Works 1946-1963. Hogarth, 1975; reprinted Virago, 1988, pp. 1-24.

______(1955) ‘On Identification’, in Ibid., pp. 141-75.

_____ et al., eds (1955) New Directions in Psycho-Analysis: The Significance of Infant Conflicts in the Patterns of Adult Behaviour. Tavistock; reprinted Maresfield, 1977.

Kogan, I. (1989) 'The Search for the Self', Int. J. Psycho-anal. 70: 661-71.

Laswell, H. D. (1960) Psychopathology and Politics. N. Y.: Viking.

*Main, T. (1975) 'Some Psychodynamics of Large Groups', in L. Kreeger, ed., The Large Group: Dynamics and Therapy. Constable, pp. 57-86; reprinted in Main, The Ailment and Other Psychoanalytic Essays. Free Association Books, 1989, pp. 100-22.

Meltzer. D. (1966) 'The Relation of Anal Masturbation to Projective Identification', Int. J. Psycho-anal,. 47: 335-42; reprinted in Spillius (1988), vol. 1, pp 102-16.

______et al. (1975) Explorations in Autism: A Psycho-Analytical Study. Strath Tay: Clunie.

**______(1992) The Claustrum: An Investigation of Claustrophobic Phenomena. Strath Tay: Clunie.

*Menzies Lyth, Isabel (1959) 'The Functions of Social Systems as a Defence Against Anxiety: A Report on a Study of the Nursing Service of a General Hospital', Human Relations 13:95-121; reprinted in Containing Anxiety in Institutions: Selected Essays, vol. 1. Free Association Books, pp. 43-88.

Miller, E. (1990) 'Experiential Learning Groups I: The Development of the Leicester Model', in E. Trist and H, Murray, eds., The Social Engagement of Social Science: A Tavistock Anthology, Vol. 1: The Socio-Psychological Perspective. Free Association Books, pp. 165-85.

*Ogden, T. (1979) 'On Projective Identification', Int. J. Psycho-anal. 60: 357-73.

______(1982) Projective Identification and Psychotherapeutic Technique. Aronson.

Pines, M., ed. (1985) Bion and Group Psychotherapy. Routledge.

Rafaelsen, L. (1992) 'Glimpses of Projective Identification in Inpatient Groups and in Life', Group Analysis. 25: 55-59.

Rosenfeld, H. (1971) 'A Clinical Approach to the Psychoanalytic Theory of the Life and Death Instincts: An Investigation into the Aggressive Aspects of Narcissism', Int. J. Psycho-anal. 52: 169-78; reprinted in Spillius (1988), vol. 1, pp. 239-55.

*______(1987) 'Projective Identification in Clinical Practice', in Impasse and Interpretation: Therapeutic and Anti-Therapeutic Factors in Psychoanalytic Treatment of Psychotic, Borderline, and Neurotic Patients. Routledge, pp. 157-90.

Sandler, J., ed. (1989) Projection, Identification, Projective Identification. Karnac.

Searles, H. (1978-79) 'Concerning Transference and Countertransference', J. Psychoanal Psychother. 7: 165-88.

______ (1979) Countertransference And Related Subjects: Selected Papers. N. Y.: International Universities Press.

Segal, H. (1973) Introduction to the Work of Melanie Klein. Hogarth; reprinted Karnac, 1988.

______(1988) 'Silence is the Real Crime', in J. B. Levine et al., eds., Psychoanalysis and the Nuclear Threat: Clinical and Theoretical Studies. Hillside, NJ: Analytic Press, pp. 35-58

***Spillius, E. B., ed., (1988) ‘Projective Identification’, in Melanie Klein Today, 2 vols. Routledge, vol. 1, part two, pp. 81-150.

*Torras de Beŕ, E. (1989) 'Projective Identification and Differentiation', Int. J. Psycho-anal. 70: 265-74.

Wolfenstein, E. V. (1981) The Victims of Democracy: Malcolm X and the Black Revolution. University of California Press; reprinted Free Association Books, 1989.

Young, R. M. (1991) '‘The Vicissitudes of Transference and Countertransference: The Work of Harold Searles', J. Arbours Association, 9:24-58,1992.

***______(1994) Mental Space. Process Press, ch. 7.

R. M. Young/ Psychotherapeutic Stud. /11.94

VIRULENT PROJECTIVE IDENTIFICATION:RACISM AND VIRULENT NATIONALISM

READINGS

*Anderson, B. (1983) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Verso.

*Anthias, F. (1990) 'Race and class revisited - conceptualising race and racisms', Sociol. Rev. 38: 19-43.

Arendt, Hannah (1963) Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil. N. Y.: Viking Penguin; revised and enlarged, 1965; reprinted Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977.

Banton, M. (1987) Racial Theories. Cambridge.

Berkhofer, R. F., Jr. (1978) The White Man's Indian: Images of the American Indian Indian from Columbus to the Present. N. Y.: Knopf; reprinted N. Y.: Vintage Books, 1979.

Bernal, M. (1987) Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilisation. Vol. 1: The Fabrication of Ancient Greece 1785-1985. Free Association Books.

Bion, W. R. (1955) 'Group Dynamics - a Re-view', in Klein et al., eds. (1955), pp. 440-77.

______ (1961) Experiences in Groups and Other Papers. Tavistock.

Brown, D. (1978) Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West. Chatto.

Buscombe, E. (1988) The BFI Companion to the Western. Deutsch.

*Carew, J. (1988) 'Columbus and the origins of racism in the Americas: Part One', Race & Class 29(4): 1-20.

*______ (1988a) 'Columbus and the Origins of Racism in the Americas: part two' Ibid. 30(1): 33-59.

Davidson, B. (1987) 'The Ancient World and Africa: Whose Roots?'

Race & Class 29(2): 1-16.

Dollard, J. (1937) Caste and Class in a Southern Town. Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday Anchor, 1957.

Ellison, R. (1970) The Invisible Man. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Faimberg , H. (1988) 'The Telescoping of Generations: the Genealogy of Certain Identifications', Contemp. Psychonal. 24:99-118.

**Fanon, F. (1967) Black Skin, White Masks. N. Y.: Grove.

Freud, S. (1921) Group Psychology ad the Analysis of the Ego. S.E., vol. 18, pp. 65-143.

______ (1930) Civilization and Its Discontents, S. E. 21, pp. 59-145.

Gay, P (1988) Freud: A Life for Our Time. Dent.

Goldberg, D. T., ed. (1990) Anatomy of Racism. Minneapolis: Minnesota.

Gordon, Paul (1993) ‘Keeping Therapy White? Psychotherapy Trainings and Equal Opportunities’, Brit. J. ,Psychother. 10:44-49

*______ (1993) 'Souls in Armour: Thoughts on Psychoanalysis and Racism', Ibid. 10:62-76. (see other articles in this special section on ‘Psychotherapy and Race’, pp. 33-76).

Hinshelwood, R. D. (1987) What Happens in Groups. Free Association Books.

______ (1991) A Dictionary of Kleinian Thought, 2nd ed. Free Association Books.

Holland, Sue and Ray (1984) 'Depressed Women: Outposts of Empire and Castles of Skin', in B. Richards, ed., Capitalism and Infancy: Essays on Psychoanalysis and Politics. Free Association Books, pp. 92-101.

Ilahi, N. (1988) 'Psychotherapy Services to the Ethnic Communities' (typescript).

Jaques, E. (1951) The Changing Culture of a Factory: A Study of Authority and Participation in an Industrial Setting. Routledge & Kegan Paul.

______ (1955) 'Social Systems as a Defence against Persecutory and Depressive Anxiety', in Klein et al., eds. (1955), pp. 478-98.

Kalikow, T.J. (1978) 'Konrad Lorenz's "Brown Past": a Reply to Alec Nisbett', J. Hist. Behav. Sci. 14: 173-80.

**Klein, M. (1946) 'Notes on Some Schizoid Mechanisms', in Envy and Gratitude and Other Works 1946-1963. Hogarth, 1975; reprinted Virago, 1988, pp. 1-24.

Klein, M. et al., eds (1955) New Directions in Psycho-Analysis: The Significance of Infant Conflicts in the Patterns of Adult Behaviour. Tavistock; reprinted Maresfield, 1977.

Koenigsberg, R. A. (1977) The Psychoanalysis of Racism, Revolution and Nationalism. N.Y.: Library of Social Science.

*Kovel, J. (1970) White Racism: A Psychohistory. N. Y. Pantheon; reprinted Free Association Books, 1988.

______ (1983) Against the State of Nuclear Terror. Free Association Books.

Kren, G. (1987) 'The Holocaust and the Foundations of Moral Judgement', J. Value Inquiry 21: 55-64.

Las Casas B. de (1552) The Devastation of the Indes: A Brief Account. Johns Hopkins, 1992.

*Menzies Lyth, I. (1959) 'The Functions of Social Systems as a Defence Against Anxiety: A Report on a Study of the Nursing Service of a General Hospital', Human Relations 13:95-121; reprinted in Containing Anxiety in Institutions: Selected Essays, vol. 1. Free Association Books, pp. 43-88.

Morrison, T. (1987) Beloved. Chatto and Windus.

______ (1992) Jazz. Chatto & Windus.

Moser, B. (1992) ‘Before Columbus’, 3 parts. Central Independent Television to ITV.

Murray, N. (1986) 'Anti-racists and Other Demons: the Press and Ideology in Thatcher's Britain', Race & Class 27(3): 1-20.

Myrdal, G. et al. (1944) An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy. N. Y.: Harper.

Paton, A. (1971) Too Late the Phalarope. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Perry, G. (1991) 'The First Face of America', Sunday Times Magazine Section, 3 Feb., pp. 19-24.

Sherwood, R. (1980) The Psychodynamics of Race: Vicious and Benign Spirals. Brighton: Harvester.

Slatta, R. W. (1990) Cowboys of the Americas. Yale.

Smith, L. (1944) Strange Fruit. Ace Books, 1959.

______ (1950) Killers of the Dream. Cresset.

Thom, M. (1978) 'Anti-racism - Infections of Language', Wedge no. 3 (winter), 14-22.

Walker, A. (1983) The Colour Purple. Women's Press.

**Wolfenstein, E. V. (1977) 'Race, Racism and Racial Liberation', Western Pol. Quart. 30: 163-82.

______ (1981) The Victims of Democracy: Malcolm X and the Black Revolution. California; reprinted Free Association Books, 1989.

Young, D. M. (1990 ‘Ratlines’. Exposed Film to Channel Four.

*Young, R. M. (1987) 'Racist Society, Racist Science', in D. Gill and L. Levidow, eds., Anti-Racist Science Teaching. Free Association Books, pp. 16-42 reprinted in D. Gill et al., eds., Racism and Education: Structures and Strategies. Sage, 1992, pp. 303-19.

*______ (1992) ‘Benign and Virulent Projective Identification in Groups and Institutions’, paper delivered to the First European Conference of the Rowantree Foundation on ‘Projective Identification in Institutions’, Wierden, Holland, April.

*______ (1994) ‘The Psychoanalysis of Sectarianism’, British Psychological Society, Psychotherapy Section Newsletter no 15: 2-15.

**______ (1994) ‘Projective Space: The Racial Other’, in Mental Space. Process Press, pp. 93-119.

 


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