Notes to Contributors

Free Associations

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NOTES TO CONTRIBUTORS to Free Associations

             The editors encourage critical thinking within the analytical tradition, broadly conceived. They hope to stimulate the discussion of theory, practice, institutionalization and training in psychoanalysis, psychotherapy and related areas, including their historical, social and political aspects; and of psychoanalytic — including group-analytic — understanding of social, cultural and political processes.

        The Editor and Managing Editor invite articles, commentaries, reflective pieces on training and work, letters, brief notes on publications and diary items. They also welcome consultation at an early stage of thinking or writing, as well as suggestions for contributions.

        Manuscripts and enquiries should be sent to Free Associations, 26 Freegrove Road, London N7 9RQ. Manuscripts must be in triplicate, double spaced throughout, with wide margins. Authors must also supply a reasonably accurate word count with their submission.

        References should be cited in the text (Smith, 1988, pp. 1-10) and listed alphabetically at the end of the article: Smith A (1988) 'A contribution on style', in E. Smith, ed. Contributions on Style. Colchester: Jay, 1989; or Smith, A. (1988) A Contribution on Style. Colchester: Jay. A style sheet is reproduced below.

        Process Press Ltd. holds the copyright of contributions published in Free Associations, unless otherwise arranged and indicated. Final versions of manuscripts undergo minimal copy-editing in preparation for publication, and, to avoid delay, authors are not sent a copy-edited text unless they specifically requested it. Authors do receive proofs and are asked to correct them, but additional changes to the text at this stage must be minimal and at the author's expense.

        Please feel free to contact the Editor or Managing Director at any time about a proposed contribution of a contribution in production. 


Type on one side of A4 paper.  Always double space - whether text, displayed quotations, endnotes, footnotes, references, or bibliography.  Always stop well below the bottom of the page, to avoid xeroxing omissions.  Always leave wide margins left and right for editorial comments - although by the time your manuscript (MS) is ready for copy-editing the margins should be clear.  When editorial revisions are made, please type alterations above the line of text, not in the margins - don't write them in by hand unless the change is minor.

Hand in the top copy of your MS, plus two others.


If you are preparing your manuscript on a word processor or computer, it is essential that your word processor output is unjustified (to enable an accurate character count). For the same reason, don't print out with proportional spacing.

Specific points

Spellings: where both -ise and -ize endings are possible, please use the latter, thus: realize, equalize.  Certain common words must take the -s form, however, as: advertise, analyse, comprise, enterprise, exercise, improvise, paralyse, supervise, surmise, televise.

Italics: underline words which you wish to be printed in italics. Try to minimize italics, however: they cost extra.  Use them sparingly for emphasis; consider rewriting the  sentence, since italics often read as shrill.

Do use italics for: book, film and play titles; works of art; long poems which are virtually books in themselves; names of periodicals.

Use roman in quotation marks for: titles of chapters in books, articles in periodicals, shorter poems.

Don't use a full stop when people are referred to by a single initial only: C, C's, Mr X, Mr X's.

But: if an individual is named in full and then referred to by his or her initials, use full stops: Leonard Woolf, L.W.

Use UK, not US, spelling: favourite, not favorite.

Don't use the ampersand (&) in the text, even for joint authors; use the ampersand only in the case of a company name.


Try to avoid footnotes - they are very tedious for editors and typesetters.  Some people do not find this easy.  Here are a few hints. Insert brief references in the text.  Revise text to include 'asides'.  Cut out parenthetical allusions altogether.  Resort to endnotes (printed together at the back of the article as 'Notes') when necessary asides would interrupt the flow of the text; in this case, number by superscript.

When footnotes are essential, but there are very few in the text, use the sequence asterisk *, dagger , double asterisk **, double dagger .  These notes will then appear at the bottom of the page. If you need to have essential information at the start of the article - for instance, where a paper was first read - use the asterisk and type the information at the bottom of the page.


Use single quotation marks for short quotations.  Use double quotation marks for internal quotations.  In the rare case of a quotation internal to that, revert to single quotes.  For quotations longer than about 60 words (or five lines), indent without quotation marks; because you have no gout marks here, internal quotations in an indented gout should have single gout marks.  Make sure you indicate when you want a display (indent) of obviously less than 60 words to be retained for emphasis.

Feel free to vary the punctuation immediately before a displayed quotation: a comma, colon, or full stop may be appropriate, depending on sense.

Ellipsis: use ... in all cases.  It is simpler than variants such as ,... or .... [to show the end of one sentence and then an omission], even though it is less faithful to the original.

Retain the capitalisation of the original, as in:

            Patterns of firing represent patterns of stimulation... Understanding this was the beginning of the powerful modern conception of the nervous system. (p.40)


            Patterns of firing represent patterns of stimulation... this was the beginning of the powerful modern conception of the nervous system. (p. 40)

If your displayed quotation ends in the middle of a sentence, use the ellipsis to show this, and then give the page reference in the normal way: 

         beginning of the powerful modern conception... (p. 40)

For material in quotation marks, the norm is that it is exempt from alterations of wording.  However, for consistency, the MS will be copy-edited to the house style - so you may as well keep this in mind when preparing your MS (American spelling should be anglicised; use -z rather than -s form, etc.).  Ambiguities, such archaic or misleading punctuation, should also be corrected by you as long as the original meaning is not distorted.

Wherever you are making an authorial comment within a quotation, it should be in square brackets, [ ].

Following a displayed quotation, the next line of type should be full out.

Textual references

The system we use is to enclose references within parentheses, thus: (Jones, p. 56).  If Jones has been a major source of inspiration with several works cited, use: (Jones, 1976, p. 22). Don't use ibid. or op. cit. when the context makes it clear that you are still quoting the same work: just use (p. 56). Although you do not have to give a page no. for every single remark, you should always cite a page no. for displayed material - it stands out so much more clearly and is usually there for emphasis anyway.  If two authors have the same surname, give initial of first name too: (Freud, A., p. 33).

Examples of some common textual references

(Jones, 1927)

(Jones, 1927, pp. 17-8)

(Jones, 1927, 1928)

(Broom, 1982; Jones, 1927) [alphabetical not date order]

(author’s italics).

(my italics).         [at end of sentence within text]

. (pp. 23-4, author’s italics)

. (pp. 23-4, my italics)    [at end of display]

 (Freud, A., 1927)

(letter, 27 November 1933)

(ed., 1945)

( and Ponytails, p. 312)

(Collator, personal communication, 1977)

(1950, letter 69)

(quoted in Heath, p. 55)

Page numbers

Use the shortest intelligible form, as in: pp. 20-1.


The textual reference, by author's name, leads the reader to the right place in the author-date bibliography.  When there are several works by the same author, they appear in date order.  Works by sole author precede works by the same author but authored jointly with another or others, regardless of date order, thus:

            Laplanche, J. (1971)

             ______ (1975)

            Laplanche, J. and Pontalis, J.-B. (1973)


If almost all books are published in London, say so at the head of the bibliography and cite the city only if it is not London.

You should always supply the name of the publisher.  Consult your editor in cases where this rule is inappropriate or impossible to fulfil.

You should normally give the date of first publication immediately after the name; but consult your editor if it is important to give date of writing, oral presentation, or publication in another language.  In the case of books with multiple editions or printings (and where a paperback version has appeared), please give bibliographical details for both the original and the final (paperback) versions, where possible. A Note at the head of the bibliography can explain any special cases.

A personal communication should not appear in a bibliography, for it cannot be traced.  It should just be named as such in the text, with a date.

Inclusive pagination - again in the shortest intelligible form - is required for all references, whether to journal articles, chapters in books, or references to a work in a Collected Works.

Presentation of bibliography

Remember to type this double spaced - with an additional line space between entries.  Use a long dash when there is more than one work by the same author:

            Winnicott, D.W. (1948)

             ______ (1958)

It is your responsibility to establish whether you are citing an article or chapter or book, and to cite it in the appropriate way.

Works in a foreign language or in translation

If you wish to refer to a foreign-language Collected Works, give full bibliographical details for the first entry, and then a consistent abbreviation, such as: G.W. for Freud, Gesammelte Werke.

Bibliographical conventions in other countries may vary,  and place and publisher may not always be given in your sources.  Please supply any missing information, and let us know if some can't be found.

Abbreviated journal titles

We use the following forms:

Am. Imago -- American Imago

Am. J. Psychoanal. -- American Journal of Psychoanalysis

Br. J. Med. Psychol. -- British Journal of Medical Psycholosy

Br. J. Psychother. -- British Journal of Psychotherapy

Free Assns -- Free Associations

Int. J. Group Psychother. -- International Journal of Croup Psychotherapy

Int. J. Psycho-Anal. -- International Journal of Psycho-Analysis

Int. Rev. Psycho-Anal. -- International Review of Psycho-Analysis

J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn -- Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association

J. Analyt. Psychol. -- Journal of Analytical Psychology

Psychoanal. Contemp. Sci. -- Psychoanalysis and Contemporary Science

Psychoanal. Psychoana 1 . Psychoanal Psychoanal. Rad. Sci.

Psychoanal. Q. -- Psychoanalytic Quarterly

Psychoanal. Rev. -- Psychoanalytic Review

Psychoanal. Soc. Sci. -- Psychoanalysis and the Social Sciences

Psychoanal. Study Child -- Psychoanalytic Study of the Child

Rad. Sci. J. -- Radical Science Journal

In other cases, unless the abbreviated title is likely to be self-explanatory, it is better to give the long form. But don't cite the same title sometimes in full, sometimes as an abbreviation.

Individual entries


Alexander, F., Einstenstein, S. and Grotjhan, M., eds (1966) Psychoanalytic Pioneers. New York: Basic. [note short form of publisher’s name]

Alexander, F., ed. (1966) Psychoanalytic Pioneers. New York: Basic.


Balint, M. (1933) ‘On transference of emotions’, in Balint (1965), pp. 301-19

______  (1965) Primary Love and Psychoanalytic Technique. Tavistok.


Anzieu, D. (1959) El Autoanalisis de Freud y el Descubrimiento del Psicoanalisis, vol. 2. Mexico: Siglo XXT, 1979. [orlginal date of publication after author's name, date of edition used at end of reference.  Make sure text reference is to original date of publication.]


Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment and Loss, vol. 1, Attachment. Hogarth. [use date of volume in question]


Bowlby, J. (1975) 'Attachment theory, separation anxiety and mourning', in D. A. Hamburg and H. K. Brodie, eds., The American Handbook of Psychiatry, vol. 6. New York: Basic, pp. 393-456.


Laplanche, J. and Laplanche, J.-B. (1973) The Language of Psychoanalysis. Hogarth.


Alpert, A. (1959) 'Reversibility of pathological fixations associated with maternal deprivation in infancy', Psychoanal. Study Child 14: 169-85. [note that the same convention holds for issue-based journals as for volume-based journals, thus: Telos 5: 33-57]


Kafka, Franz (1925) The Trial, E. and W. Muir, trans. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1953.


Calef, V. (1976) 'The psychoanalytic process', Panel discussion, Association for Child Psychoanalysis, Kansas City.  [unnecessary here to say 'Unpublished paper'.]


Calef, V. (1956) 'The psychoanalytic process', University of Cambridge, PhD dissertation.


The first entry should give full details: place and publisher, no. of vols, years of publication, translators and/or editors; then a clear abbreviation (S.E. for Freud; C.W. for Marx, Jung, Lenin; otherwise, an unambiguous, consistent form), and cite in date order of writing.  It is unnecessary to give the date of publication of individual volumes in a Collected Works.

You should indicate whether the original publication was a book or paper in the normal way, and you should include page numbers.

The following examples are taken from the Freud Standard Edition:

Freud, S. (1886a) 'Report on my studies in Paris and Berlin', in James Strachey, ed. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psycholosical Works of Sigmund Freud, 24 vols. Hogarth, 1953-73. vol. 1, pp. 38-95.

______ (1886b) 'Observations on a case of hysteria'. S.E. 1, pp. 103-56.

______ (1905) Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuallty. S.E. 4, pp. 3-150.

Make sure that any a, b, etc. references in the bibliography and text tally - feel free to ask for guidance when compiling your bibliography.

Note: Use the ampersand for publishers: Grune & Stratton.

The Human Nature Review
© Ian Pitchford and Robert M. Young - Last updated: 28 May, 2005 02:29 PM

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